## EDT 181

 Properties
 Characteristics
 referent
 refer to. Ex: sky blue
 measurement
 process of comparing to a unit
 unit
 agreed upon referent
 measurement process
 1. comparing unit to property 2. following a procedure which specifies how the comparison is made We Will Write a Custom Essay SpecificallyFor You For Only \$13.90/page!order now 3. counting how many standard units describe the property
 Standard Unit
 decided upon units ex: metric/english system
 Yard
 distance from head to finger tip
 Inch
 wrist to finger tip
 fathom
 Arms stretched out
 foot
 length of foot
 cubit
 Elbow to finger tip
 English system
 Inch, foot. most are reference from the human body
 Metric system
 established by french academy, uses centimeter, meter.
 SI
 international system of units
 Fundamental properties
 Cannot be defined in simpler terms that what is it measure as. EX: length, mass, time, charge
 meter
 standard unit for length in metric system defined as distance that light travels in a vaccuum during a certain time period
 kilogram
 standard unit for mass in metric system defined as the inertia of an object
 second
 standard unit of time in metric system
 Measurements of 10
 10 millimeters, centimeter, decimeter, meter
 data
 can be used to describe objects, conditions, events, or changes that might be occuring.
 Volume
 size of an object. (how much space something occupies)
 Area
 extent of a surface
 ratio
 relationship between two numbers that is obtained by dividing an object
 density
 mass/volume
 quanitities
 measured properties
 Equation
 quanities on one side are set equal to the other side
 variable
 refers to a specific quanitity of an object or event that can have different values.
 direct proportion
 an increase or decrease in one variable results in the same relative increase or decrease in a second variable
 inverse proportion
 one variable decreases while the other increases
 proportionality constant
 sometimes given the symbol k, can be a numerical constant
 pi
 circumference/diameter of a circle
 hypothesis
 educated quess
 experiment
 a recreation of an event or occurance in a way that enables a scientist to prove or disprove a hypothesis
 controlled experiment
 compares two situations in which all the influencing factors are identical except one.
 control group
 the situation used as the basis of comparison
 experiemental group
 the single influencing factor that is allowed to be different in the experiemental group
 (means false) is not science but uses the appearance or language of science to mislead people into thinking that something has scientific validity
 scientific law
 describes an important relationship that is observed in nature to occur consistently time after time.
 scientific principle
 describes a more specific set of relationships than is usually identified in a law.
 model
 is a description of a theory or idea that that accounts for all known properties
 theory
 a broad working hypothesis that is based on extensive experimental evidence. ex: a scientific theory tells you why something happens.
 metric system
 based off referents found in nature
 Modern science
 300 years ago during the time of galileo and newton
 principle
 develops when a hypothesis is proved
 important aspects of motion
 1) a change or position 2) the passage of time
 Motion of objects
 described by using combinations of the fundamental properties of length and time
 3 properties of motion
 speed, velocity, and acceleration
 speed
 = distance/time
 constant speed
 equal distance per equal unit of time
 instanaenous speed
 spped at any given moment
 average velocity
 average distance/average time
 acceleration
 change in velocity/time elapsed
 velocity
 speed and direction of an object in motion
 force
 push or pull that is acting on an object
 net force
 sum of all of the forces acting on an object
 fundamental forces
 gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, strong
 inertia
 the tendency of an object to remain in unchanging motion whether actually at rest or moving in the the absence of an unbalanced force
 free fall
 objects fall towards the earth with out air resistance
 2 types of motion
 horizontal, straight line motion and the vertical motion of dropped objects that accelerate toward the surface of the earth
 Laws of motion
 1) the objects have inertia, a tendency to resist a change in motion 2) that forces are inloved in a charge of motion
 1st law of motion
 every object retains its state of rest or its state of uniform in straight-line motion unnless acted upon by an unbalanced force
 Newton’s 2nd law of motion
 the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force action on it and inversely proportional to the mass of an object.
 mass
 the property that determines how much an object resists a change in it’s motion
 Newton’s third law of motion
 whenever two objects interact, the force exerted on one object is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object.
 momentum
 the product of mass (M) of an object and its velocity (V); momentum=mass x velocity
 impulse
 force and time of application
 centripical
 center seeking force
 centrifugal force
 outward tug
 newton’s law of gravitation
 every object in the universe is attrracted to every other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportion to the square of the distances between them
 gravity
 9.8 meters squared
 distance
 =1/2 acceleration*time
 work
 = force * distance
 joule
 (newton meter) unit of work
 power
 work/time
 horse power
 550ft/lbs
 energy
 the ability to do work
 potential energy
 energy due to position
 kinetic energy
 (energy of motion)=1/2mass*velocity
 mechanical energy
 form of energy of familiar objects and machines
 chemical energy
 form of energy involved in chemical reations
 energy that travels through space
 electrical energy
 energy from electromagnetic interactions
 nuclear energy
 energy source in power plants
 law of conservation energy
 energy is never created or destroyed. energy can be converted from one to another form, but the energy remains constant
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