EDT 181

Properties
Characteristics
referent
refer to. Ex: sky blue
measurement
process of comparing to a unit
unit
agreed upon referent
measurement process

1. comparing unit to property

2. following a procedure which specifies how the comparison is made

3. counting how many standard units describe the property

Standard Unit

decided upon units

ex: metric/english system

Yard
distance from head to finger tip
Inch
wrist to finger tip
fathom
Arms stretched out
foot
length of foot
cubit
Elbow to finger tip
English system
Inch, foot. most are reference from the human body
Metric system
established by french academy, uses centimeter, meter. 
SI
international system of units
Fundamental properties

Cannot be defined in simpler terms that what is it measure as.

EX: length, mass, time, charge

meter

standard unit for length in metric system

defined as distance that light travels in a vaccuum during a certain time period

kilogram

standard unit for mass in metric system

defined as the inertia of an object

second
standard unit of time in metric system
Measurements of 10
10 millimeters, centimeter, decimeter, meter
data
can be used to describe objects, conditions, events, or changes that might be occuring.
Volume
size of an object. (how much space something occupies)
Area
extent of a surface
ratio
relationship between two numbers that is obtained by dividing an object
density
mass/volume
quanitities
measured properties
Equation
quanities on one side are set equal to the other side
variable
refers to a specific quanitity of an object or event that can have different values.
direct proportion
an increase or decrease in one variable results in the same relative increase or decrease in a second variable
inverse proportion
one variable decreases while the other increases
proportionality constant
sometimes given the symbol k, can be a numerical constant
pi
circumference/diameter of a circle
hypothesis
educated quess
experiment
a recreation of an event or occurance in a way that enables a scientist to prove or disprove a hypothesis
controlled experiment
compares two situations in which all the influencing factors are identical except one.
control group
the situation used as the basis of comparison
experiemental group
the single influencing factor that is allowed to be different in the experiemental group
pseuado science
(means false) is not science but uses the appearance or language of science to mislead people into thinking that something has scientific validity
scientific law
describes an important relationship that is observed in nature to occur consistently time after time.
scientific principle
describes a more specific set of relationships than is usually identified in a law.
model
is a description of a theory or idea that that accounts for all known properties
theory
a broad working hypothesis that is based on extensive experimental evidence. ex: a scientific theory tells you why something happens.
metric system
based off referents found in nature
Modern science
300 years ago during the time of galileo and newton
principle
develops when a hypothesis is proved
important aspects of motion
1) a change or position 2) the passage of time
Motion of objects
described by using combinations of the fundamental properties of length and time
3 properties of motion
speed, velocity, and acceleration
speed
= distance/time
constant speed
equal distance per equal unit of time
instanaenous speed
spped at any given moment
average velocity
average distance/average time
acceleration
change in velocity/time elapsed
velocity
speed and direction of an object in motion
force
push or pull that is acting on an object
net force
sum of all of the forces acting on an object
fundamental forces
gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, strong
inertia
the tendency of an object to remain in unchanging motion whether actually at rest or moving in the the absence of an unbalanced force
free fall
objects fall towards the earth with out air resistance
2 types of motion
horizontal, straight line motion and the vertical motion of dropped objects that accelerate toward the surface of the earth
 Laws of motion
1) the objects have inertia, a tendency to resist a change in motion 2) that forces are inloved in a charge of motion
1st law of motion
every object retains its state of rest or its state of uniform in straight-line motion unnless acted upon by an unbalanced force
Newton’s 2nd law of motion
the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force action on it and inversely proportional to the mass of an object.
mass
the property that determines how much an object resists a change in it’s motion
Newton’s third law of motion
whenever two objects interact, the force exerted on one object is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object.
momentum
the product of mass (M) of an object and its velocity (V); momentum=mass x velocity
impulse
force and time of application
centripical
center seeking force
centrifugal force
outward tug
newton’s law of gravitation
every object in the universe is attrracted to every other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportion to the square of the distances between them
gravity
9.8 meters squared
distance
=1/2 acceleration*time
work
= force * distance
joule
(newton meter) unit of work
power
work/time
horse power
550ft/lbs
energy
the ability to do work
potential energy
energy due to position
kinetic energy
(energy of motion)=1/2mass*velocity
mechanical energy
form of energy of familiar objects and machines
chemical energy
form of energy involved in chemical reations
radiant energy
energy that travels through space
electrical energy
energy from electromagnetic interactions
nuclear energy
energy source in power plants
law of conservation energy
energy is never created or destroyed. energy can be converted from one to another form, but the energy remains constant

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