EDSP 2

learning
a permanent change in behavior that results from experience
variable
a measureable factor, characteristic or attribute of an individual or system
problem solving
an attempt to find an appropriate way of attaining a goal that is not readily available is called problem solving
motivation
the driving force behind all actions of an organism
homogeneous
of the same quality or general property
variablity
how much scores in a distribution are spread out from the mean
cooperative learning
students interact in in purposefully structured heterogeneous group to support the learning of one self and others in the same group
LRE
a setting that is as similar as possible to the environment non-disabled students are educated
attention
the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one thing while ignoring other things (sustained, selective, and divided)
information processing
the essence of this approach is to see cognition as being essentially occupational in nature (mind is the software, brain is the hardware)
pupil
the opening in the middle of the iris, controlled by pupilary reflex (depending on light to stimulate movement)
reasoning
using reason to derive a conclusion from certain premises (deductive and inductive)
metacognition
thinking about thinking (explicit: conscious and factual) (implicit: unconscious and procedural)
cognition
intellectual processes through which information is obtained, transformed, stored, retrieved and used
receptor
a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism
brain
controls and coordinated most movement, behavior and homeostasic function. made up of two types of cells: glia and neurons. responsible for cognition, emotion, memory, motor learning and other learning
sensory register
involves two components: iconic and echoic memory
iconic memory
the storage of visual information, lasting about a half second
echoic memory
the sotrage of auditory information, lasting up to two seconds
selective attention
involves focusing on a specific aspect of a scene, while ignoring other aspects
coding
in senation, the process by which information about the quality and quantity of a stimulus is preserved in the pattern of action potentials sent through sensory neurons to the CNS
tactile
the quality which can be physically touched is tactile
working memory
the collection of structures and processes in the brain used for temporary storage and manipulation of information. working memory consists of both memory for items that are currently being processed and components for governing attention and directing the processing itself.
executive function
the processes involved in regulating attention and determining what to do with information just gathered or retrieved from long term memory
reading comprehension
can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. normal reading rates are about 200-220 words per minute with 75% comprehension
recategorization
shifts in the boundary between an individual’s in-group and an out-group, causing persons formerly viewed as out-group members to now be viewed as in-group members
schema
refers to a way of mentally representing the world, such as a belief or an expectation, that can influence the perception of persons, objects, and situations
feedback
information returned to a person about the effects a response had had
learned helplessness
the effect of inescapable positive punishment
performance orientation
an outlook in which individuals are concerned with performance outcome rather than with performance process. for the performance oriented student, winning is all that matters
attitude
an enduring mental representationof a person, place, or thing that evokes an emotional response and related behavior
scheme
according to Piaget, a hypothetical mental structure that permits the classification and organization of new information
algorithm
a systemic approach for silving a problem that works invariably when correctly applied
automatically
the ability to process information with little or no effort
overgeneralization
concluding that all instances of some kind of event will turn out a certain way because one or more in the past did
affect
a subjective feeling or emotional tone often accompanied by bodily expressions noticeable to others
context
the background stimuli that accompany some kind of foreground event
decoding
process of phonetic analysis by which a printed word is converted to a spoken form before retrieval from long term memory
analogy
a comparison between two different things in order to highlight some form of similarity (shows relationship)
theories
logically self consistent models or frameworks describing the behavior of a certain natural or social phenomenon
applied behavior analysis
the application of behavioral science to the analysis of behavior. widely regarded as the most researched intervention in addressing the social, linguistic, and mental differences in autistics
antecedents
events that typically precede the target response (behavior)
psychodynamic
mostly centered around the idea of maladapted function developed early in life that is at least partially subconscious
operant behavior
simply emitted behavior
trait
an enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors (also a genetically inherited feature)
personality
the pattern of enduring characteristics that differentiates a person
overt behavior
action or response that is directly observable and measureable
consciousness
awareness of the sensations, thoughts and feelings being experienced at a given moment
heuristic
thinking and decision making that involves short cuts
availability heuristic
occurs when people estimate the probability of an outcome based on how easy that outcome is to imagine
paradigm
refers to the set of practices that defines a scientific discipline during a particular period of time
stimulus
a change in the environmental condition that elicits a response
ethnicity
refers to a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language

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