EDL 8030–Exam 1

System that explains some phenomena in a systematic way.
Mitchell and Spady



Administrative (stability):   Environmental, facilitate, group achievement

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Teacher (divergent):  Transformational, individual achievment.


Center line is the conflict.


Leadership is a process whereby an individual influecs a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.


Leader can’t control–Must influence.



Ways to study leadership
Traits, behavior, contingency, situational.
Trait Theory

Machiavelli (do what’s best for the most people)


“Great Man Theory”  George Washington (elected because of height)


Stogdill–No set of leadership traits.


Kirk and Locke–Characteristics

Stogdill (1947)










Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991)





Cognitive ability

Task Knowledge

Big 5 Model




Emotional Stability

Openness to Experience

Article:  Do Traits Matter?

Kirkpatrick and Locke–Drive, Leadership Motivation, Integrity, Self-Confidence, Emotional Stability, Cognitive Ability, Knowledge of the business


Core of a leader is to create a vision–A concept of what the organization SHOULD be.

Theory X

Average human has a dislike of work


Most people must be coerced with punishment to achieve objectives


Average person prefers to be directed


Punishments and rewards

Theory Y

People exerceise self direction and self-control to things in which they are committed.


Average person seeks responsibility.


People are genuinley creative, imaginative and posess ingenuity.


More empowering to workers

Transformational Leadership

Build and strengthen employee commitments to the organizations norms and goals.


High ethical and moral conduct, consider needs of employees over own, share risks with employees in goal setting, use power only when necessary (never for personal gain.


charismatic/inspirational–Vision focused

Transactional Leadership

Based on incentives, recognition, and work promotions to persuade followers to strive for goals that are important to organization


Use power to gain employee compliance


Looks for deviations from the rules.


Works well in times of calm and times of crisis

Coercive Power

Ability to punish subordinates for failure to copmly


Leads to feelings of fear, frustration, alienation and disdain.

Expert Power

Influences subordinates when the blieve the leader has expertiese of knowledge that is of a real benefit


Comes from education, experience, and training and tends to be very important

Referent Power
Charisma or personality that makes subordinates want to follow
Iowa Studies

Authoritarian:  Leaders took full responsibility, high structure, seek no participation from subordinates (highest productivity)

Democratic:  Encourage group to be involved in decision making, ideas are expressed openly.

Laissez-Faire:  Subordinates have complete decision making, essential no leadership, lowest productivity/most aggressive

Ohio State Studies

Seperate leadership Dimensions:

1.  Consideration:  The extent to which the leader is likely to have job relationships (friendship, warmth, and consideration)

2.  Initiating Structure:  Extent to which the leader is likely to structure his or her role in goal achievment.

Impoverished Management (ohio state)
Low concern for poeple and production
Country Club Management (ohio state)
High concern for people, low concern for production
Organization Man (ohio state)
People feel adequately valued and the organization achieves objectives at a minimal acceptable standard
Authority-Obedience (Ohio State)
High productivity/Low concern for people
Team Management (ohio state)
high concern for both people and production
Hershey and Blanchard–Situational Leadership

Task Behavior –One way communication by outlining what each worker has to do–no room for feedback


Relationship Behavior–two way communication  workers have much opportunity for feedback, leader is able to offer support


Four Frames of leadership and management

Structural–  Emphasiezes specialized roles and fomal relationships

Human Resource–Considers the need of the individual above all else

Political–Focuses on bargaining, negotiating, coercion, and compromise ro accomplish goals

Symbolic–Leaders adapt their behavior to best fit a situation

Situational Leadership Theory
A leader’s decisions regarding the appropriateness of task behaviors and relationship behaviors are tied directily to the perceptions of the followers job maturity (Experience and education) and psycological maturity (mental)
Situational Leadership Manners

Structuring–Effective when followers are low in motivation and ability

Coaching–Effective when followers are low in ability but high in motivation (direct instructions and maintains concern for the follower)

Supporting–Effective when lacking motivation but have ability (high concern for relationships

Delegating–Best for high ability/and motivation–leader just moniters performance

Classical Leadership Article

Four styles of behavior leaderhip:

Concern for task, concern for people, directive leadership (giving orders), and participate leaderhip


Three things important:  relationship between leader and followers, structure of the task, and position power (power of the leader to get job done)

There is no one right way to an answer
According to Hersy and Blanchard, leaders ust judege their followers readiness by determining if they are:
Willing and Able
Can you list the three types of leaders found in the Iowa Studies?
Autocrative, democrative, and lazzaie-faire
What are French and Raven’s Five Sourcnes of Power:
Coercive, reward, referent, expert, and legitimate
The potential abliity to influence behavrior, to change the course of events, to overcome resistance, and to get poeple to do things they don’t otherwise do.
Why Should Anyone Be Led By You–Article

Inspirational leaders share four unexpected qualities:

1.  Selectively show weakness

2.  Rely heavily on intuition to guage the appropriate timing and course of actions

3.  Manage employees with something called tough empathy

4.  Reveal their differences (irritable on monday mornings, shy, disorganized)

House’s Path Goal Theory

Importance of Situainal factors on task accomplishments and psychologcal state of follwers and processes


Leader behavior is shaped and constrained by situational factors. 

L-Leader Behvaior (directive, participative, supportive, achievement oriented

O-Outcomes (performance/Satisfaction

S-Subordinate Contingency Factors (experience, perceived ability)

E-Environmental Contingency Factors (Task structure, work group)

Clearing a path to your group’s goals

Senge’s 5th Discipline
Systems, Team Learning, Shared Vision, Mental Models, Personal Mastery
Cordiero’s Four disticnt components of collaborative leadership:

Technical Competencies: knowldge of both group processes and school community’s social and educaitonal values.

Human Resource Competencies: Great emphasis on interpersonal skills

Political Competencies:   manage the inevitable competition for resources

Architectural Competencies:  skills necessary for framing the roles and relationships of those working within the organization

Senge’s 5th Discipline (Systems Thinking)

Concerns itself with the understaind that all parts of the organization are interrelated and affect each other. 


Focus is on the whole, parts, and the relationship among the parts


All parts of the system are interdependent and subject to influence any other part.

Senge’s 5th Discipline (Personal Mastery)

Cornerstone of a learning organization.  The descipline or continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision of focusing on our energies of developing patience and seeing reality objectively.


I can control myself and influence others

Senge’s 5th Discipline (Mental Models)

Deeply ingrained assumptions generalizations, or even pictures or images that influces how we understand the world.


In any new experience, most poeple only take in and remember the information that reinforces their existing models

Senge’s 5th Discipline (shared vision)

sharing an image of the future you want to realize together


Catalying peoples aspirations through time, care, and strategy.

Senge’s 5th Discipline (Team Learning)
when two or more people in an organization collectively analyze issues and discuss situations and possible outcomes, they tend to discover insights not attainable individually.
The ladder or inference
observable data (student came late) select some details (slumped down in back of room), add own meaning based on culture, make assumptions (student doesn’t care about school), draw conclusions (grade poorly)
Management by walking around

spend time in hallways with teachers and students. 


Have a commitment to be with people , and the belief that the classroom and the teachers and students are the source of diagnostic information and solutions to problems.

McClelland’s 3 Needs


Achievement– Personal responsibility, feedback moderate risk

Power–Influence, competitive

Affiliation–Acceptance and friendship, cooperative


Goal Setting Theory–Locks

Specific goals increase performance, and difficult goals, when accpeted, result in higher performance that easy goals.


Goal too low–no challenge

Goal too high–no reason to continue, it can’t be accomplished

What makes a leader?
Goleman’s EQ
What does Senge call those fixed patterns we use to aid our thinking, but can also limit it?
Mental Models
Maslow’s Need Heirarchy

Self-Actualization(achieveing ones full potential)

Esteem Needs (prestige and feelings of accomplishment)

Love Needs (Intimate relationships, friends)

Safety Needs (Security, safety)

Physiological needs (food, water, warmth, rest)


If most basic need is not met, individual will not be motivated by those further up.

Alderfer’s ERG Theory

 Existence–Food, drink, shelter, and safety.  (in a job these are salary, job security, and working conditions)

Relatedness–includes all interpersonal relationships

Growth–Represents the intrinsic desires individuals have to maximize their potential to be fulfilled and contentment in an environment

Differences between Maslow and Alderfer (ERG)

1:  Maslow believes a lower level must be satisfied before moving onto the rest, Alderfer believes they can occur simultaneously

2:  Maslow states that a satisfied need ceases to be motivating.  Alderfer maintins that as individuals become frustrated at not being able to satisfy higher needs, they may regress to lower needs that have already been satisfied

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Also known as two-factor or dual-factor theory. 


Factors that motivate people and lead to job satisfaction (motivation factors), and those that lead to job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors)

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Motivation Factors)
included achievement, recognition, advancement, growth, and responsibility
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Hygiene Factors)

Incclude working conditions, salary, interpersonal relationships, supervision, and company policy.




All professional staff development should:

be linked to improvement of student learning.

McClelland suggests were motivated by 3 needs. What are they?


Power, Affiliation, and Association.
Feld/Displayed Emotions

Felt:  Actual Feelings

Displayed:  Required by organization for job

Emotional Labor:  Expressing organizationlly desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.


Observing your thoughts and feelings


Witnessing yourself from a neutral perspective


Being aware of what you are doing by noticing the sensations, emotions, or thoughts you experience


Using self-control by showing restraing and delaying gratification


Inspiring your own motivation


Not blaming others for personal difficulties

Social Competence

Adaptable and flexible

Compassionate and Empathetic

Good listener

Appreciation of diversity

People Skills

Leadership Qualities



Cognotive Dissonance

Occurs when there are inconsistencies between 2 or more of a person’s attitudes or between a person’s behavior and attitudes



Reduce cognitive dissonance by:

Stopping the behavior

Deciding the dissonant behavior is not important

Changing the attitude

Seeking out more constant elements to outweight the dissonant ones

Finding things that match up on both sides


There is no one best way


Everything is a judgement call


Do your homework–Know the background and context of a situation

Level 5 Leadership
Looks in the mirror when things are dificult and says “what can I change about myself to make things better”
Attribution Theory

Do I think internally or externally?  Where is the control?


What do you attribute blame to–dog eating trash, is it your fault for leaving the lid off (intrinsic) or the dog’s fault for digging (extrinsic)

Fundamental Attribution Error

We assume others are internally controlled–assume the wrong things about people


EX:  all kids did poorly on the test because they were lazy–not looking at self (I wrote a bad test, didn’t prepare them effectively)


Self-Serving Bias
We exaggerate our external controls–When things are going bad we blame external things–I got in a car accident, not because I’m a bad driveer, but instead the ‘sun was in my eyes’)

If you want to change the culture, to what should you pay attention to?  


School climate and interpersonal relations
School culture is defined by
The values of the teachers and adults
What is a norm?
an unwritten group rule
Culture is:

The hidden assumptions that shape how people think about their work, relate to their colleagues, definte their mission, ,and derive their sense of identity.


According to Malcom Gladwell, thin slicing is:


Knowing at a glance
Cultural Artifacts do not include:

School Climate: 


is the manifestation (tangible features) of culture

According to Firore which of these is not an element of positive culture:  


Have special cultural ceremonies
School Culture is

the collective values, beliefs, morals, and behavior governing the actions taken by people assicaited with the school.


It’s not what people do, but instead why they do it.

School Climate

Reflects one facet of personality and self-image


Climate is the totality of our surroundings


Can be easily changed

Behaviors that principals ought to adopt to create a positive school culture:

o   Be visible to all stakeholders.


o   Communicate regularly and purposefully.


o   Never forget that principals are role models.


o   Be passionate about your work


o   Understand how responsible you are for the culture.


o   Keep yourself organized


o   Exhibit a positive outlook. 


o   Take pride in the physical appearance of your schools.


o   Empower other appropriately


o   Demonstrate stewardship.


·      The elements of a positive school culture are:


o   A bias toward action


o   Close to the customer


o   Autonomy and Entrepreneurship (risk taking)


o   Productivity through people (input from teachers)


o   Hands on, Value driven effort (Cultural values of employees)


o   Sticking to the Knitting (Know your parents and students, and know what they are able to deliver)


o   Simple form, lean staff (simply organizational structures


6 interlocking dimensions that define school culture:

1.              The history of the school


2.              The values and beliefs of the school


3.              Myths and stories that explain the school


4.              The cultural norms of the school


5.              Traditions, rituals, and ceremonies characteristic of the school


6.              The heoes and heroins of the school


Types of school Cultures (family culture)
Friendly, cooperative, and protective
Types of school Cultures (machine culture)
Focus is on protection and not warmth–School is viewed in instrumental terms which result int he school being seen as a machine that educators use to accomplish goals
Types of school Cultures (carabet culture)
Terchers performance and efforts are focused on getting reactions from the audience

Types of school Cultures (Little shop of horrors culture)


Unpredictable and loaded with tension–paranoid, cold, and unforgiving
Deming’s Total Quality Management (TQM)–Based on Japanese business practices

constancy of purpose towards improvement

Adopt the new philosophy

Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality

End the practice or awarding business ont he basis of a pricetag

Institute training on the job

Improve constantly and forever

Institute Leadership

Drive out Fear

Break down barriers between departments

Eliminate slogans, exhonorations and targets for the fwork force asking for zero defects

Eliminate work quaotas on the floor

Remove barriers that rob people of time and joy of work

Institute a program of education and self-improvement

Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation

Ouchi’s Theory Z

Focuses on the culture of the entire organization and is concerned with the difference the organizational cutlure makes in the way the whole organization is managed


Success and failure is shared among employees and management


individual responsibility, consenual decision making, long-term employment, slow evaluation and promotion, explicit meausures of perfomance, commitment to all aspects of life, including family life.

Three Levels of Culture

Artifacts: The daily rituals, ceremonies, and icons that are most conspicuous to the causl observer

Values and Beliefs level–Form the basic organization character of the school.  Through shared beliefs and values, members of the faculty develop a sense of direction that guides daily routine

Underlying Assumptions Level:  Making assumptions

Moments of Greatness Article
being results centered, internally directed, other focused, and externally open are at the heart of positive human influence.
Participatory Leadership
An organization that relies on participatory management to an extreme extent involves stakeholders in the formation of all rules, contains no obvious chain of command, is flexible, and is concerned with people and their needs before being concerned with the needs of an efficient organization.
Directive, Supportive, Participative, or Achievement-Oriented Leadership is a part of Stogdill’s trait, Michigan behaviorist, or House’s path/goal situation theory?
House’s Path Goal
Hershey & Blanchard’s situational theory categorized leaders as supportive, directive, participative or achievement oriented based upon the followers’ level of _________
Maturity (Job Maturity


Approaches to leadership theory include:


personal traits,


patterns of behavior,


response to situations, and

Decision-making—also known as __________ theory

The Ladder of Influence is part of:
Senge’s 5th Discipline

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