EDL 593 – Mid Term Study Guide

Goals 2000

All children will start school ready to learn.

Graduation rate will be 90%

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US will be first in the world in Math and Science

Students will leave grades 4,8, and 12 demonstrating competency in core areas

Every adult american will be literate

Every school in american will be free from drugs, violence, and firearms

Every school will promote partnerships to increase community involvement

Teachers will have access to programs to improve professional skills

Hawthorne Studies

1. The group norm established the level of output for workers.

2. Workers who produced too much were disciplined by the group.

3. Rate busters were physically threatened by the group

4. Increases in productivity were related to group dynamics and effective management.

5. Emplyer demands and physical environment had no affect on productivity.

Senge’s Systems Theory

A way of viewing schools as learning organizations.

Inputs – the school district’s environment provides it with personnel, finance, and theory

Transformation – the school converts the input from the external environment to output

Output – include student achievement, teacher performance etc.

Chain of Command
Staff positions have less authority and typically don’t have decision making authority. (Not in direct line) don’t have anyone underneath them. Resolve problems on lowest level possible. Chain of command – vertical, division of labor – horizontal
Organizational Structure

Centralization – when the Central Office retains the authority and depends on subordinates to implement decisions

Decentralization – Authority and responsibility are delegated to subordinates to make decisions. Building level staff are empowered and influence overall operation .

MacGregor’s Theory X and Y

Theory X – work is distasteful, unmotivated, prefer to be directed, and coerced to achieve objectives.

Theory Y – work is play, motivated, seek responsibility, don’t need to be supervised closely.

Argyris Maturity and Immaturity Theory

Immaturity – passive, dependent, shallow interests, short-term, subordinate, lack of self-awareness

Maturity – active, independent, many ways of behaving, long-term, superordinate, self-aware

Likert Systems 1-4 Theory

System 1 – authoritarian, bureaucratic, downward decision and communication, low trust and productivity

System 2 – no group discussions, decision making at the top, low trust, not as resistant as system 1

System 3 – both downward and upward communication, decision making on lower levels, high producitivity, high morale

System 4 – complete participation, upward and downward communication, trust and confidence

Getzels-Guba Model

Nomothetic – institution, role, role expectations; normative part of social system

Idiographic – individual, personality, need dispositions; personal side of social system

Organizational Culture

shared philosophies, beliefs, feelings, expectations, attitudes, norms, and values that are characteristic of the organization

Formal culture – expected

Informal culture – actual

Organizational Climate

total environmental quality within an organization

Open – energetic, lively, moving towards goals, leadership emerges from both leader and members, feeling of satisfaction

Closed – high degree of apathy, not moving towards goals, low morale and stagnant

School Climate Assessment

OCDQ – measures open to closed climate, studies show focus on adults, not used to measure effect on student achievement

CASE – measures data about perceptions, all stakeholders complete surveys, data may be useful in preparing school reports

CPI – measure humanistic to custodial; boss management versus lead management; quality in academics and athletics

Humanistic Schools

learning through cooperative interaction

self-discipline is norm


open communication

students and teachers accept responsibility

Custodial Schools

rigid and highly controlled

students perceived as irresponsible and undisciplined

behavior controlled through sanctions

impersonal and mistrustful

downward communication


Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory

Level 1 – Physiological needs; the basics

Level 2 – Safety; freedom from fear of physical and psychological danger

Level 3 – Love and Belonging Needs – need to belong and be accepted

Level 4 – Esteem needs; self-esteem and recognition from others

Level 5 – Self-actualization – maximize one’s potential

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

policies and administration – achievement

supervision – recognition

working conditions – work itself

interpersonal relations – responsibility

money, status, and security – advancement



Participative Leadership
called collective leadership; group, shared, or teacher leadership focuses on the decision making process of the group
Managerial Leadership
focuses on the functions, tasks, and behaviors of the leader. Management of the day to day routines in an organzation.
Iowa Studies

authoritarian – no group input at all. Complete control by leaders

democratic – complete group work between the subordinates and the leader

laissez-faire – no control by leader at all. Chaos

Subordinates preferred democratic.

Democratic – long term

Authoritarian – short term

Ohio State Studies
initiating structure – focuses on organization performance goals, communicate standards, emphasis on deadlines, evaluate performance consideration – concern for the welfare of subordinates, listeners, treats all staff as equals, and frequently uses emplyee ideas and suggestions.
Hershey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership styles
Three dimensions – Relationships oriented, Task oriented, and maturity level of followers.
Transformational Leaders
focuses on leaders who have had exceptional impact on their organization. This is rare in society. Motivate their subordinates to achieve more than expected. Get followers to transend their self-interest for the sake of the organization. Raise followers need levels to higher order needs, such as self-actualization.
Situational Leadership Styles

Directing Style – first year teachers Q1

Coaching Style – non-tenured second and third year teachers Q2

Supporting Style – supporting teachers when they come up with excellent ideas and helping them implement them Q3

Delegating Style – deparmental chairs working on school improvement Q4

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