EDFON 430 Test 2 – Ball State

Influences on the Growth of public Schools – CMATCS
a. Immigration
i. The concentration of people
b. Industrialization
i. Apprenticeship > learn a skill from someone else
c. Urbanization
i. Brings crime to city
Aims of the common school – CMATCS
a. The common school is an idea developed by the Whigs to benefit all citizens through education
b. Structure
i. Prussia school system
1. Separated by age
2. “universal” > open to all kids
a. curriculum
3. Free controlled and paid by local and state governments
ii. Common School Reform
1. More political and organizational
Andrew Jackson – CMATCS
a. The common man
i. Notion began with president Andrew Jackson, identified as a “commoner” because he was from the state of Tennessee.
ii. Wanted to remove government from economic affrays because the govt.
1. Changing the federal bank
a. Lassai fair business practices
The Wigg Party — CMATCS
i. A political party formed in opposition to Jackson and his supporters, but also attempted to reach and meet the needs of the commoners through the common schools
ii. Mann
Horace Mann – CMATCS
a. Served as secretary to the Massachusetts State Board of Education
b. Powers limited to the collection and dissemination of information regarding educating in Mass.
c. Created county educational conventions
d. Distributed annual reports

iv. School discipline
1. Mellow system that tried to instill morality rather then beat it into them

Mann’s appeals to different constituents – CMATCS
g. Mann’s Appeal to the wealthy
i. Resistance to overcome:
1. They wanted their children to go to private schools
ii. Argument/Appeal
1. Educated workers are more productive
2. Reduce crime rate
h. Mann’s appeal to the working class
i. Resistance to overcome:
1. They wanted their children to work
ii. Argument /Appeal
1. Social advancement, they could climb the social ladder
i. Mann’s views on property and taxation
i. Even though you own your land you are really “leasing” it.
ii. An obligation to Use what you have and contribute to the common good
1. Cultivate the land and use it for the best use
Irish – CMATCS
a. Came because of their potatoes famine
b. Looked down upon because they were Catholics
c. Most Americans were protestant
Religion – CMATCS
a. Catholic vs. Protestant
i. Catholics looked for state approval for their own school system
‘Feminization of Teaching’ – CMATCS
a. Lower cost
b. More nurturing of children
c. Still ran by men
d. High surplus
Michael Katz’s critique – CMATCS
VIII. The Irony of Early School reform
a. Michael Katz
i. They were used by the upper class to control the lower class
b. The Beverly Vote
i. Voted down the high school
c. Critics
i. Its much more complex than that
ii. They voted on it
iii. People’s motivation for doing things could be much more complex
school Funding – CMATCS
a. Improved physical setting of schools through:
i. Use of surveys
ii. Public encouragement for model districts
iii. Publication of school expenditures by town
African Americans -CMATCS
a. Racially, non-white students were not included in common school plans.
b. Sarah Roberts vs. the City of Boston
i. Walked pass several schools to go to her black school
ii. Early case of desegregation
c. Plans weren’t made to include blacks
Abigail Adams – ITCOEW
i. Remember the ladies!
ii. Context or Background:
1. Daughter of a liberal , puritan minister: married a Harvard man
iii. Argument for Women’s rights:
1. Wanted a high level of education for women
2. Republican motherhood (Marriage & Motherhood)
a. Educated so they could create the future citizens
b. Women still should support their husbands
iv. Role and Outcome
1. Don’t forget the Ladies in the new constitution
Women’s “primary duty’ – ITCOEW
Bear children
Republican Motherhood – ITCOEW
The concept related to women’s roles as mothers in the emerging United States before and after the American Revolution (c. 1760 to 1800).

It centered around the belief that children should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, making them the perfect citizens of the new nation

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Enlightenment Theories & Women – ITCOEW
a. Frankenstein
i. Men trying to create life without women involved
b. Locke
i. Blank slate
c. Rossue
i. Did not think of women as human beings
d. The rights of women slid away they could only vote for a period of time.
The impact of the Revolutionary War – ITCOEW
a. Role for the war > sewing, supported women, contribution
b. Heightened the importance of women
c. Constitution provided no additional rights to women than already existed
d. Educated women was left to the states
Mary Wollstonecraft – ITCOEW
a. Mary Wollstonecraft
i. “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman”
ii. Context or Background:
1. England at the time of the French Revolution
iii. Argument for Women’s Rights:
1. Women’s first duty was to themselves
2. Women should be educated as rational creatures
3. Woman’s success directly correlated with education
4. Education would assist women in marriage
iv. Role and outcome:
1. Views seemed radical
2. Didn’t become the main beliefs
3. Resistance to a Gendered Social Order
“A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” – ITCOEW
Resistance to a gender social orderIQ = Mental Age
Chronological age x 100
Carl Brigham – Non of the Above
a. Beliefs
i. Raciest
ii. Immigrants were less intelligent
b. Contribution
i. SAT
ii. Wrote a study of American Intelligence
iii. Created ETS
Brigham’s views on race – Non of the Above
Raciest, believed that immigrants were less intelligent
Alfred Binet – Non of the Above
b. Contributions:
i. First “Intelligence Test”
1. Commissioned by French Govt. to separate children into vocation vs. academic schooling
2. Did not design test to measure ‘intelligence’
Henry Goddard – Non of the Above
a. Beliefs
i. Eugenics
ii. Restricted immigration
b. Contribution
i. Translated the Binet-Simon intelligence scale into English and French
ii. Popularized the IQ Test around the United States
iii. Coined the term moron
Translated the Binet-Simon intelligence scale into English
Henry Chauncey – Non of the Above
a. Beliefs
i. Meritocracy > natural aptitude
b. Contributions
i. Shaped the nation’s Standardized testing practices
ii. Ran ETS
Influence of WWI -&- WWII – Non of the Above
a. Consolidation of people
b. The Army Alpha and Beta Test
i. Alpha : a written test
ii. Beta: pictorial test for those who were “incapable”
c. Army Alpha test became the SAT
d. WWII built need for Testing
i. GI Bill
Army Alpha & Army Beta tests – Non of the Above
b. The Army Alpha and Beta Test
i. Alpha : a written test
ii. Beta: pictorial test for those who were “incapable”
Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale – Non of the Above
IQ = Mental Age
Chronological age x 100
Educational Testing Services – Non of the Above
ran by Chauncey
The SAT – Non of the Above
c. Army Alpha test became the SAT
The point of the SAT was to extend the Alpha standard to what Brigham and the Board viewed as mainstream American culture. The SAT was to be the cornerstone of a new American social order – the aristocracy of aptitude, the meritocracy
Meritocracy – Non of the Above
advancement is based off of individual capability and achievement
Plato’s myth – TMOM
b. Socrates new he was telling a lie
IQ testing – TMOM
III. Modern Biological Determinism
a. IQ testing
b. The Bell Curve
Biological Determinism – TMOM
a. Shared behavioral norms and the social and economic differences between human groups
i. Races
ii. Classes
iii. Sexes
b. Take differences and make them have a natural aspect
c. Social economic Roles accurately reflect the innate construction of people
Cultural influences on science – TMOM
a. Socially embedded based on:
i. Hunch (beliefs)
ii. Vision
iii. Intuition
b. Cultural contest
Reification – TMOM
i. Convert abstract concepts get turned into entities , something that is tangible or simplistic
ii. Division & Distinctions
iii. Intelligence = Unitary Thing
1. Nut inside the head
2. The brain
Ranking – TMOM
i. Complex variation can very simply put into a scale
ii. Progress
iii. Assigning All individuals to their proper status in the single series
Goddard – TMOM
a. Social prejudice filters its way into science
b. Took photos and modified them to make the people look deviant or retarded.
Deficit thinking – TOG
the notion hat students fail in school because such students and their families have internal defects, or deficits, that thwart the learning process.

focus on the individual devoid of context
Motivation, Socialization, & Academic Competence
Low-Level Vocational Education

Low- Level vocational education – TOG
Impact of IQ test results – TOG
Mexican American students in the Southwest were subject to frequent intelligence testing and resultant curricular ability grouping and tracking.

George Isidore Sanchez

Tests: 50% of Mexican American Elementary School Students – Mentally Sub Average

Culture of poverty – TOG
Poor Create Their Own Problems

Culturally Deprived

Limited Educability

Segregation – TOG
Mexican Americans and others identified school desegregation as the most despicable form of discrimination practiced against Spanish-speaking children

After the war, school desegregation continued to be viewed as the major factor impeding the educational, social, and economic mobility of the Mexican American population

Inferior schooling – TOG
funding disparities
student ratios
completion rates
Alvarez v. Lemmon Grove – TOG
Nation’s first successful desegregation court case, “it was isolated as a local event and had no precedent-setting ruling affecting either the State of California or other situations of school segregation in the Southwest”
(MAES) Report – TOG
Historical segregation of Mexican American students has persisted into the contemporary period.

The percentage of Latinos enrolled in predominantly White schools dropped by 36 percent.

MAES reported rates of 86 percent and 60 percent, respectively.

High school completion rates – TOG
23 percent of Mexican American students entered college, with only 5 percent finishing
Language exclusion – TOG
The MAES report on language suppression and cultural exclusion found that less than 7 percent of the schools in the southwestern U.S. offered bilingual education.

Although bilingual education has contributed much to the improvement of schooling for limited-English-proficient (LEP)

For decades, most Mexican American students whose mother tongue was Spanish and who were not proficient in English have faced the sink-or-swim pedagogical practice of English-only instruction.

Only a small portion of students actually have access to bilingual education, and its very existence is currently in jeopardy

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