EDEX 424

Relationship between Text Structure and Comprehension

Increases Comprehension

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Supports explicit connections between 

Helps students find the information they need

Types of expository text structure

Text Books 





Clues that point to text structure






       Instructional Manuals


Why is expository text structure more challenging?

Lack of voice

More abstract

Logical-casual relationship of events

Structures more complicated and varied

Less predictable

What is the function of anticipatory events?

Gain Attention 

Increase Motivation 

Stimulate Background Knowledge

Create Context for learning

Thought provoking questions

Intended to assist in organization 

Appeal emotional channels of learning


Quick Writes as anticipatory events

English class

Introduction of new reading

tap into background knowledge 

initiate reading-writing conection 


good literature 

personal connection 


How vocabulary supports comprehension

Predictor of success 

Concept vocabulary vs. label vocabulary

Concept- “utopia”

Label- “tunic”

General Vocabulary 

Everyday language. 

ex: pesky, bothersome, vexing

Specialized Vocabulary 

Flexible, transporable across curricular disciplines 

Multiple meanings in different content areas 

ex: loom, head, brush

Technical Vocabulary 

Specific to one field of study 

ex: concerto, meiosis


Importance of personal connections to vocabulary 


I really don’t know

“Said is Dead”

Expanding vocabulary 

thinking of different words for said

Word Analysis

Root words (morphemes)




Principles of effective vocabulary instruction and development (how do you teach vocabulary?) 

Actively involved 

Make personal Connections

be immersed in vocab 

consolidate meaning through multiple information sources




Scaffolding Strategy Instruction 



1. Background Knowledge 

2. Model 

3. Collaborative Practice

4. Guided Practice

5. Independent Practice 

Shades of Meaning






Semantic Feature Analysis

categorizing terms by characteristics 

assists in assigning characteristics or features in a grid pattern 

Vocabulary Cards

Serves several uses 

Quiz me cards

Meaningful Repetition 

Student must find people to quiz him/her

5 Step Summarization

1. Delete trivial info

2. Delete redundant info

3. Substitute superordinate terms for a list of terms or actions

4. Select topic sentence 

5. Invent topic sentence



Higher Order Questions




rather than 




Thought provoking questions

Think about the level of cognitive engagement 

QUILT framework 






How does the ReQuest Strategy build background knowledge?


designed first for one to one instruction 

group activity

Apply a QAR  strategy to a simple reading passag

Right there “when was the declaration signed?”

think and search “What are notable accomplishments of                           jefferson?”

author and you “What influence did participation in the                          development of the declaration have on                        the signers?”

on your own       “If you were in a delegate of the second                          continental congress would you sign?”

model different levels



Making brainstorming more effective 


present stimulus 

ask student to list what they can associate 

record associations on the board, connect while writing

categorize associates

clarify ideas

discuss category titles


Story maps – how might they apply to history? 

Recall important concepts pertinent to historical period

reproduce structure that reflects info 

integrate targeted vocab

generalization and maintence 

use strategy elsewhere 

Maintain skill 

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