ED 4242 Final

1. Why did the authors adjust the National Reading Panels (NRP, 2000) 5 essential areas to something different? (p.64)
The National Reading Panel identified five areas essential to effective early reading instruction: 1)Phonemic awareness 2) Phonics 3)Fluency 4)Vocabulary 5)Comprehension. The authors adjusted this because there is emergencing evidence that individual differences in motivation to read for understanding play an important role in supporting the acquisition of the comprehension skills that are a major focus of instruction for most older struggling readers. The revised five areas are: 1)Word Study 2)Fluency 3)Vocabulary 4)Comprehension 5)Motivation
2. What role does the classroom teacher play in each of these areas? What is your role and what is the IRT’s role?
The teacher role: Provide information to the IRT regarding curricula Conference with instructional resource teacher on curriculum outcomes and instructional and assessment strategies pertinent to individual students. Take lead in the identification of outcomes requiring modification and the delivery of modified prescribed courses Collaborate with the IRT regarding classroom delivery of selected outcomes of alternate programs, courses, and curriculum. Collaborate with the IRT in the assessment and evaluation of the outcomes of alternate programs, courses and curriculum. Take the lead role in assessment and evaluation of students on prescribed curriculum (including modified prescribed). This role may be shared with the instructional resource teacher if highly integrated models of co-teaching are employed for specific topics or units of work. Examples of highly integrated models might include extended use of parallel, team and station teaching. Supply the original documents related to accommodations and/or modified prescribed courses to the contract teacher Take the lead in monitoring and documenting of modified prescribed courses. Keep copies of the records of accommodations and modified prescribed course documents for regular revision and updates. These are working documents. If there are alternate program, course, or curriculum outcomes being delivered in the classroom, the classroom teacher should also have copies of those documents. Involve the instructional resource teacher in parent-teacher meetings as determined through conferencing with the IRT Hold parent-teacher meeting for all students in class. For students who program primarily occurs in a pull-out instructional setting, teachers will collaborate to decide on the information to be shared and the format of the parent-teacher meetings. Role of IRT Provide information to the classroom/subject teacher regarding exceptionalities and the program planning process Conference with the classroom/subject teacher regarding student-specific accommodations, strategies, modifications and alternate programming outcomes. Assist with identification of outcomes requiring modification Take the lead in the development of alternate programs, courses, and curriculum and collaborate with classroom/subject teacher in the delivery of the outcomes. Take the lead in the assessment and evaluation of the outcomes of alternate programs, courses, and curriculum in collaboration with the subject/classroom teacher. May support classroom/subject teacher in the assessment and evaluation of students on prescribed curriculum. The extent to which this will occur may vary depending on the combinations of pull-out instruction, collaboration, or models of co-teaching employed. Supply original documents related to accommodations and alternate program/course/curriculum to the content teacher. Take the lead in the monitoring and documenting of alternate programs, courses and curriculum Keep copies of the records of accommodations, modified prescribed and alternate program/course/curriculum documents for regular revision and updates. These are working documents. Participate in joint parent-teacher meetings as agreed upon with the classroom/subject teacher. This could be through physical presence or by providing written comments Hold parent-teacher meetings with parents of students on alternate programs/courses/curriculum.
3. How do the authors recommend that teachers use fluency instruction for older readers? How should you construct reading passages for them?
Fluency instruction and practice may be most effective when combined with instruction on word-level reading skills and comprehension. Fluency unleashes cognitive resources while comprehension strategy instruction provides the older readers with guidance on the use of these newly available resources. Repeated reading of passages that have instructional target words embedded in otherwise readable text may be more useful than practicing overly difficult passages or passages that include vocabulary to which students have not been repeatedly and frequently exposed.
5. What do Beck and colleagues (2002) suggest is the wisest way to teach new vocabulary words? (p.66).
The best way to teach new vocabulary words are to break words into three tiers. Tier One words are words students are likely to know. Tier Two words appear frequently in many contexts. Tier Three words appear rarely in text or are content specific. Beck and colleagues suggest that teachers focus vocabulary instruction on Tier Two words drawn from content-area materials that contain words that students are likely both to need and learn well.
6. Is it the classroom teacher’s job to be concerned with reading comprehension instruction in upper grades? (p.66)
Yes – should scaffold but No-give technology
7. What did the article say might be useful in helping with reading comprehension (p.67)? What strategies could you list?
Activating prior knowledge Graphic Organizers Direct Instruction – Strategies: rereading, restating, and using context and decoding skills to identify unknown words or new ideas. Teaching students to ask questions before and during reading to guide and focus reading; to confirm, disconfirm; or extend predictions; and to grapple with the meaning of text by actively engaging comprehension strategies. Reading for meaning – teach students to summarize as they read to create, revise and refine their understanding of a passage. Scaffold Instruction.
10. How can you increase and maintain student motivation to read?

– dont make text too complicated. More than 10 mistakes on a page and students dont understand

– increasing value of reading

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– being able to choose what they read

– reading aloud to masterput rewards in for reading

Making instruction more powerful or intensive: know the various ways to do this:
More instruction time assigned · Smaller instructional groups · More precisely targeted instruction at the right level · Clearer and more detailed explanations · More systematic instructional sequences · More extensive opportunities for guided practice · More opportunities for error correction and feedback · Opportunities to practice corrected work
Ways that we can illustrate learning:

Explicit explanation of all steps

Demonstration of skills you expect

High expectations;

Expect mastery Expect skill transfer

Frequent corrective feedback

Guided instruction

Opportunity to practice corrected skills

Plenty of practice in general

Scaffold/ mentor

Make sure they experience success

Monitor/ Evaluate progress

How should you address reading problems? math problems? writing problems? and even content/concept/language problems in I/S students?

Explicit Instruction

Visual Representation Heuristics (is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical methodology not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals)

Progress Monitoring

Corrective Feedback and Corrective Practice

How do you teach or cause learning to occur within the current theoretical structures in Newfoundland & Labrador schools?

 UDL/RTI/inclusion/SDM

 

What learning theories help to structure instruction? ABA/schema/CSI/SocCult
Applied Behavioural Analysis:
Antecedents
More interesting activities, student preferences, reduce task difficulty/length, provide choice, clear explanation. etc.
Instructional content, classroom schedule, classroom rules, classroom arrangement, peer interactions.
Behaviours
Learning to increase desirable behaviours through consequences. There are four principles to apply in attempting to maintain or increase behaviour:
The behaviour must already be in the student’s repertoire
A consequence must follow the precise behaviour to be changed or must be linked to the behaviour by language
A reinforcer is whatever follows a behaviour and maintains or increases the rate of the behaviour
To be most powerful, reinforcement should occur immediately following the behaviour
Negative Reinforcement: increases responding by removing a stimulus
Positive: increases responding by adding a stimulus
Take away something negative or unpleasant to increase desired behaviour
Cognitive Strategy Instruction
CSI integrates ideas from behavioural, social and cognitive learning theories and assumes that cognitive behaviour, like observable behaviours, can be changed. The goal of CSI is to change the way the student thinks.
Common features include: strategy steps, modeling, self-regulation, verbalization, reflective thinking/questions
Sociocultural Theory ****IMPORTANT FOR THE TEST**
Sociocultural theory assumes that learning is socially constructed. It highlights the importance of modeling and the use of language to facilitate learning.
Three things need to be considered:
What the student brings to learning: culture, language, prior knowledge, etc.
Social nature of learning and the MKO
DOES ANYONE KNOW WHAT MKO STANDS FOR?: most knowledgeable other
Scaffolded Instruction

Schema Theory
According to the Schema Theory our knowledge is organized into Schemas, an organizing structures or scripts for procedures or events that help us make inferences about events around us.
To make instruction more intensive you seek to fill in the gaps from the point of prior knowledge and current understanding.
You use the schema as a starting point for the retrieval of information and organization of new material.
You use the schema to link ideas “text to text, text to self, text to world”

What role do executive functions play?
Executive Functions are higher control functions that involve regulation of thinking and behaviour. They are routines responsible for monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes during complex cognitive tasks ( working memory, reasoning, task flexibility, planning, problem solving, execution of ideas)
Cognitive skills (such as fluency/automaticity) are important and should be addressed and targeted, Why and how?
3 systems work simultaneously to carry out cognitive tasks:
1) Selective Attention (Inhibition): The ability to select and not select the correct stimuli or information to perform a task. Disengagement from irrelevant tasks or superfluous tasks is also important.
2) Switch Attention (Shifting): The ability to shift between conceptual/mental skills to apply and solve problems.
3) Working Memory (Updating): The processing of accessing and using information from long term memory…and the ability to monitor and code incoming information and to update the content of memory by replacing old items with newer, more relevant information.

To assess students on their reading and comprehension skills you need to spend time with them individually and listen to them.

Fluency and automaticity are important for reading comprehension. If a student can read fluently and the words they are reading come to them automatically, they should be able to comprehend the ideas/concepts and be able to link what they are reading to their previous knowledge/experience and apply it. If they have trouble understanding words or are not familiar with words, they spend more time trying to understand each word vs. the ideas being presented in the reading material. The article we read recommended reading a wide range of material vs. reading material over and over again so that a student becomes familiar with words in many settings. It also recommends for students to read more often. “Practice makes perfect.”

What are worked example solutions? How is this concept related to differentiated instruction and scaffolded instruction?
How do you address executive functions?
What do good readers do that we should teach poor readers to do?
Identify differences in structure and purpose of text
Tap prior knowledge regularly
Use cognitive strategies to monitor reading comprehension (self-monitoring, summarizing, self-questioning)
We should pre-teach important concepts or skills through the use of “advance” organizers & re-teach (review) previous material.
How can you use social contexts to facilitate deep learning?
How can self regulation and metacognition be taught? What strategies would you use to do this?
What are the differences and similarities between the concepts discussed in this class: RTI/UDL/Differentiation etc.

Universal Design for Learning:  Multiple Means of Representation, Expression and Engagement. Making content, skills, information accessible by giving one equal access to what they need. Multiple ways of presenting, receiving and accessing information. Multiple means of representation to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, Multiple means of expression to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, and Multiple means of engagement to tap into learners’ interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn

 

Differentiation: Making information more specific. Uses a lot of formative assessment s a method of approaching the planning and implementation of curriculum and instruction acknowledging that individual learners will have different levels of aptitude, achievement, interest, motivation, needs and ability.


 Response to Intervention (RTI) is a teaching and learning process using research based instructional practices reflecting learners’ needs, monitoring student learning progress and modifying and adjusting instruction as necessary to insure continued growth. Response to Intervention (RTI) procedures are used for students who are having difficulties academically as well as those who might be experiencing behavior issues. RTI is primarily a general classroom initiative, rather than a special education service. However, special education professionals may be involved in planning or implementing the instructional interventions along with the classroom teacher. 

 

Within the RTI model a paradigm shift is supported with classroom teachers implementing differentiated instruction and small group learning rather than removing students for service by experts. 

Oral language development and concept understanding are important, right? So, how can you ensure your students understand concepts and vocabulary?
Rick Dufour advocated for “looking in the mirror” as opposed to “looking out the window”. What did he mean by this?
? Rick Dufour outlined two school improvement strategies. The first strategy, he labeled the “if only” approach, which bases hopes for school improvement on others. For example, “if only the school board would reduce class sizes, if only the parents were more supportive, if only the students were better prepared and motivated”. The focus is outward as we look for others to solve our problems. The other strategy is to focus on the conditions that lie within our sphere of influence. This can-do strategy shifts the focus inward as we begin to ask, “what can we do to monitor each student’s learning on a timely basis, to respond with more time and support when a student struggles, to create time within the school day to work collaboratively?”
? Schools that resort to the “if-only” strategy spend their time looking out the window for the solutions to their problems. Schools that commit to the can-do strategy spend their time looking in the mirror.
Define the term learning
? A change in long term memory (mentoring, scaffolding, zone of proximal development). For students with learning problems, instruction must be designed to address the problem of ensuring that information is deeply encoded in long term memory.
Define scaffolding.
Give examples of how can instruction be more intensive and powerful.
? Skills and Resources.
? Resources (More instructional time assigned and smaller instructional groups).
? Skills (Clearer and more detailed explanations, more precisely targeted at right level, more systematic instructional sequences, more extensive opportunities for guided practise, more opportunities for error correction and feedback, opportunities to practise corrected work).
What do we mean by instruction? What does the classroom teacher actually control? What is the classroom teachers role to play in all of this?
Should teachers be primarily concerned with teaching or learning?
As quoted by Rick Dufour, “a general assumption that it is the school’s job to see to it that students learn rather than merely be taught, and the expectation that all students can and should learn at high levels”.
Please provide an illustration of teaching. What must instruction BE in order for learning to take place? (APPLY THESE CONCEPTS TO ESSAY).
– Explicit explanation of all steps
– Demonstrate skill you expect
– High expectation: expect mastery
– Expect transfer of skill
– Guided instruction
– Corrective feedback often
– Practise corrective skills
– Scaffold/mentor
– Provide lots of practise
– Make sure they feel success
– Monitor/evaluate progress
Describe Applied Behavior Analysis.
The focus is on identifying observable behaviors and manipulating the antecedents and consequences of these behaviors to change behaviors. Negative (increases behavior by removing a stimulus) and positive (increases behavior by adding a stimulus) reinforcement. If Then principle!
Cognitive Strategy Instruction
CSI integrates from behavioural, social, and cognitive learning theories, and assumes that cognitive behavior (thinking process), like observable behavior, can be changed. The goal of CSI is to change the way the student thinks.
– Strategy steps
– Modeling
– Self-regulation
– Verbalization
– Reflective thinking/questioning
***Sociocultural Theory***
Assumes that learning is socially constructed, it highlights the importance of modeling and the use of language to facilitate learning. There are three things to be considered here:
– What the student brings to instruction: culture, language, prior knowledge, etc.
– Social nature of learning and the MKO
– Scaffolded instruction
How are these components used to intensify instruction?
Schema Theory
Our knowledge is organized into schemas, an organizing structures or scripts for procedures or events that help us make inferences about events around us. To make instruction more intensive, you fill in the gaps from the point of prior knowledge and current understanding. You use the schema as a starting point for retrieval of information and organization of new material. You use the schema to link ideas: “text to text, text to self, text to world”.
What is the role of Assisted Technology?
? It aids in processing, thinking, and engages/motivates. It plays to the students strengths.
What is prescribed curriculum?
Describe the process of what occurs and who is involved in deciding whether or not to write an IEP for a new student in your classroom.
Math LD Article (Gersten, Chard, Jayanthi, Baker, Morphy, Flojo)
5 Approaches
1. Explicit Instruction
2. Get Visual while solving problems (enhanced anchored instruction)
3. Teach and Use Heuristics
4. Student Verbalization
5. Progress Monitoring (worked examples, routine drill and practise)
6. Attribution Effects

? Explicit instruction includes step by step, problem-specific instruction, resulting in increased gains in math performance by for LD students.
? Model and demonstrate out the solution
? Verbalize explicitly your thought processes and procedures
? Have the student verbalize the step
? Provide lots of practise, corrective feedback and corrective practise
? Graphic diagrams had positive benefits on student mathematics performance. Teacher selected visuals showed greatest effect.
? Visuals were even more powerful when they were a) used as part of explicit instruction, b) the teacher referred to it often and c) when the use of it was combined with verbalization.
? It is recommended that teachers combine graphical representations that illustrate key processes and concepts with verbal descriptions of those processes and concepts in order to facilitate student learning.
? Enhanced use of anchor charts is effective.
? Heuristics are general problem solving guide in which the strategy (list of steps) is not problem specific but can apply across many types of math problems (FOIL, BEDMAS, SOHCAHTOA).
? Frequent and systematic formative assessment, with corrective feedback is beneficial to the teacher and student.
? Attribution Effects is emphasizing that effort and correct strategy yield results.
Step 1: Know your curriculum
Step 2: RTI: Teach!! Assess, monitor progress, provide feedback, follow recommendations of curriculum guide.
Step 3: Intensify instruction through creative and validated ways.

Discussing Roberts, Torgesen, Boardman, & Scammacca
1) Why did the authors adjust the National Reading Panels 5 essential areas to something different? (pg. 64)
? Because many older struggling readers have a reasonable mastery of phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle (i.e., phonics) and may benefit more from instruction in advanced word study. It is also important to recognize that the challenge of motivating struggling students to read becomes increasingly difficult as they age.
? Word Study, Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Motivation.

2) What role does the classroom teacher play in each of these areas? What is your role and what is the IRTs role?

3) How do the authors recommend that teachers use fluency instruction for older readers? How should you construct reading passages for them?
? “Fluency instruction and repeated practise with the same text may have instructional value for older struggling readers when combined with focused word-learning that is coordinated with the passages used for fluency practise. Repeated reading of passages that have instructional target words embedded in otherwise readable text may be more useful than practising overly difficult passages or passages that include vocabulary to which students have not been repeatedly and frequently exposed. Finally, non-repetitive wide reading has the benefit of exposing students to new and different content, vocabulary and text types”.

4) How would you work with an IRT in this area?

5) What do Beck and Colleagues (2002) suggest is the wisest way to teach new vocabulary words? (pg. 66)
? They suggest breaking words into three tiers. Tier 1 words are words students are likely to know (e.g., sad, funny). Tier 2 words appear frequently in many contexts (e.g., regardless, compromise). Tier 3 words appear rarely in text or are content specific (e.g., irascible, biogenetics). Beck and colleagues suggest that teachers focus on vocabulary instruction on Tier 2 words drawn from content-area materials that contain words that students are likely both to need (because they are encountered across contexts) and learn well (because students will have repeated opportunities for practise and use).

6) Is it the classroom teacher’s job to be concerned with reading comprehension instruction in upper grades? (pg. 66)
? The effectiveness of interventions that directly teach and support the use of comprehension strategies was not firmly established in the review of research on students with LD. Intervention for older students require multifaceted techniques (activating prior knowledge, graphic organizers, comprehension-monitoring strategies, and scaffolded instruction).

7) What did the article say might be useful in helping with reading comprehension? (pg. 67) What strategies could you list?
? Activating prior knowledge helps students make connections between what they already know and what they are reading.
? Graphic organizers are visual representations that assist students in identifying, organizing, and remembering important ideas from what they read.
? Comprehension-monitoring strategies enable students to track understanding as they read and to implement repair strategies when understanding breaks down.
? Reading for meaning requires synthesizing large amounts of information into its most important elements.
? Scaffolded instruction that starts with short passages that address relatively unsophisticated content and works up to more lengthy and difficult selections may be an effective approach.

8) How are these examples of UDL? How might or should you use them to think about what “good instruction” is?

9) Think honestly about this question: How likely are you to incorporate these ideas into your general education classroom – what might prevent you from implementing these ideas? What might encourage you to use them?

10) How can you increase and maintain student motivation to read?
? Guthrie and Humenick (2004) identify four features that are critical to increasing and maintaining students’ motivation to read:
a) Providing interesting content goals for reading
b) Supporting student autonomy
c) Providing interesting texts
d) Increasing social interactions among students related to reading.

11) In the end the authors admit the enormity of the task of helping struggling readers in Junior and Senior High school close the age-level gap in reading? What are your thoughts on this matter?
? The article summary states the following, “it does seem likely that the intensity and amounts of instruction necessary to close the gap for many older students with LD will be considerably beyond what is currently being provided in most middle and high schools”.

Discussing Ebbers and Denton (Root Awakening)

What are 3 aspects of vocabulary instruction the authors describe as “promising practise”?

 ? Creating a verbal learning environment that fosters word consciousness

? Selecting and teaching specific words

? Teaching an independent word learning strategy through a combination of contextual and morphemic analysis. 

What role do executive functions play? How do you address these?

 

O  Higher control functions that involve regulation of thinking and behaviour.  They are routines responsible for monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes during complex cognitive tasks. Working memory, reasoning, task flexibility, planning, problem solving, execution of ideas.

Cognitive skills such as fluency/automaticity are important and should be addressed and targeted. Why and how?

 

 

 

O  Oral reading fluency is the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression.

O  Automaticity of word recognition refers to the ability to quickly recognize words, with little cognitive effort or attention.

O  One important instructional component is repeated readings. Repeated oral reading activities develop automaticity of word recognition skills, speed and accuracy.

O  The average child needs 4-14 exposures to a new word to recognize it automatically.

O  Children with reading difficulties need 40 or more exposures to recognize it automatically.

What are worked example solutions? How is this concept related to differentiated instruction and scaffolded instruction?

 

“When teaching mathematical or science problem solving, we recommend that teachers interleave worked example solutions and problem-solving exercises—literally alternating between worked examples demonstrating one possible solution path and problems that the student is asked to solve for himself or herself—because research has shown that this interleaving markedly enhances student learning.”

 

 

It is suggested that at the beginning of a new skill you provide one worked example for each problem…a 1:1 ratio.  You reduce this over time.  To differentiate you maintain this ratio for students who need it. 

What do good readers do that we should teach poor readers to do?

 

O  Identify differences in structure and purpose of text

O  Tap prior knowledge regularly

 

O  Use cognitive strategies to monitor reading comprehension (self-monitoring, summarizing, self-questioning).

How can you use social contexts to facilitate deep learning?

How can self-regulation and metacognition be taught? What strategies would you use to do this?

O

  Self-regulation procedures include developing goal setting, self-monitoring, self-instructions, and self-reinforcement.

O  In Mason and Graham (2008), outline six stages for fostering self-regulated strategy development:

        Develop preskills needed for completing the task and executing the target strategies

        Discuss the strategy as well as describe how the strategy will improve the task

        Memorize the strategy steps

        Model the strategy while thinking out loud

        Provide ample teacher-supported guided practise as students learn to use the target strategies and self-regulation procedures

 

        Use independent practise to target strategies and self-regulation procedures, including opportunities for generalization across tasks and settings.

What are the differences and similarities between the concepts discussed in this class: RTI/UDL/differentiation.

 


O  
RTI: Response to Intervention is a multi-tier approach to the early identification and support of students with learning and behavior needs. The RTI process begins with high-quality instruction and universal screening of all children in the general education classroom.

O  UDL: Universal Design Learning. It outlines equal opportunity and access. The goal is to overcome weaknesses and focus on strengths instead. It is a broader approach, ensuring everyone has access, and that everyone can hear and learn.

 

O  Differentiation: We tweak it for a smaller group.

Oral language development and concept understand are important, right? So, how can you ensure your students understand concept and vocabulary?

Learning
is a change in long term memory. To create a change in long term memory you need to teach deep and meaningful lessons.
What are the three overlapping strategies for instruction?

These instructional approaches are grounded in overarching principles recognized by researchers as being characteristic of effective instruction for students with learning difficulties, including:

a) Explicit instruction

b) Promoting cognitive and collaborative engagement

c) Providing many opportunities for practise including distributed practise, with teacher feedback.

***Note: These are concepts emphasized many times in the course. They need to be in your essay!!***

 

 

What are some ways teachers can promote word consciousness?

 

? Word consciousness requires metalinguistic awareness.

? Teachers can emulate such as atmosphere by providing opportunities for discussion.

? Through this discussion, students can share prior knowledge with one another, ask questions, make predictions, and confirm or justify predictions through the text.

? Students need to both hear and speak the targeted vocabulary. Spoken language such as discussion groups, verbal interaction, and even simple articulation promotes retention more effectively than listening passively.

? In everyday classrooms, teachers can use scholarly synonyms for known words.

? Teachers might help students understand the differences in the way words are used in normal conversation, in class room discourse, and in the language of the text, pointing out that using formal language is akin to wearing formal clothing.

? With teacher guidance, students can engage in word games, invent new words, select and display favorite words, share word wit and poetry, and explore the origins and meanings of surnames and/or local place names. 

What was the talk about morphology all about anyway?
? Morphological families include words that share the same root or base, such as logic, logical, logically, illogically, and so on. The most useful words to support academic growth are unknown words that have a higher frequency (appear again and again) and words that belong to a fairly large morphological family. Because it belongs to a large morphological family, it may be more rapidly processed and retrieved.

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