EC-6 Generalist Preparation

 

Phonology

 

 the study of the basic sound units of language (phonemes) 

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morphology

 

the study of units of meaning within words

 

the way words are formed (morphemes)

 

examples: root words and inflectional endings

 

 

 

syntax

 

 

phrase and sentence structure

 

what makes sense (grammar) 

 

example: Subject-verb agreement

 

 

 

 semantics

 

the way languge conveys meaning

 

i.e. Amelia Bedelia

 

 

 

pragmatics

 

 

appropriate word choice and use in context to communicate effectively

 

i.e.: common sense rules, “How are you?”

 

 

orthography

 

 

spelling pattern

or the practice of correct spelling

 

i.e.: ph, ea, oi, etc.

 

 

lexicon

 

 

knowledge of the meaning and pronunciation of words 

(vocabulary)

 

 

What is phonemic awareness?

 

It refers to a child’s ability to understand that words have smaller components called sounds or phonemes and that these sounds together create syllables and words.  It requires looking at print, shows how the sounds of spoken language are represented by letters and spelling.

 

 

 

 

What is phonological awareness?

 

 

Phonological Awareness is the ability to recognize and manipulate components of the sound system of a language.  Activities do NOT involve print and can be done with their eyes closed. 

 

 

What are the 2 phases of the alphabetic principle? 

 

 

Pre-Alphabetic Phase 

and

Partial Alphabetic Phase

 

 

What are the 3 stages of the Alphabetic Principle? 

 

 

Full Alphabetic Stage

 

Consolidated Alphabetic Stage

 

Automatic Alphabetic Stage

 

 

What are the phases and stages of the alphabetic principle? 

  1. Pre-alphabetic Phase
  2. Partial Alphabetic Phase
  3. Full Alphabetic Stage
  4. Consolidated Alphabetic Stage
  5. Automatic Alphabetic Stage

 

 

What are the 6 types of syllables? 

 

  1. closed syllable
  2. open syllable
  3. vowel-consonent-e syllable
  4. vowel-r syllable
  5. vowel pair syllable
  6. final stable

 

 

What is a closed syllable? 

 

 

It ends in at least one consonant.

Consonant after the vowel = short vowel sound

 

Ex: butter

mist

 

What is an open syllable? 

 

 

Nothing after the vowel = long vowel sound

 

Example: she or table

 

 

 

 

What is a vowel-consonant-e syllable? 

 

 

Always at the end of a word.

Any vowel, followed by any consonant, followed by silent “e”= long vowel sound

 

Ex. wakecute

 

 

 

 

What is a vowel-r syllable? 

 

 

A vowel-r syllable has an r after the vowel. The sequence of the letters in this type of syllable is a vowel followed by r (er, ir, ur, ar, or) Robber “r” steals the vowel sound when it comes AFTER the vowel

 

Ex:church, fork

 

 

 

What is a vowel pair syllable? 

 

 

A vowel pair syllable (or vowel team) has two adjacent vowels.  There are two vowels together, one sound. Often the long sound of the first vowel (Often, but not always) 

Example: feet and soup

 

 

 

 

What is a final stable or consonant- LE syllable? 

 

 

It has a consonant l-e combo or nonphonetic like -tion. 

 

Ec: simple

 

 

What are the 5 spelling/writing stages? 

  1. Precommunicative
  2. Prephonemic
  3. Phonemic
  4. Transitional
  5. Conventional

 

 

What is alliteration?

 

 

Words in a sentence or phrase that begin mostly with the same letter sound

 

Example: Tall Tanya took tiny tots to town.

 

 

What is a consonant blend or cluster?  

 

 

It is two or three letters in the same syllable that are blended or heard when pronounced (Ex. tr in tree) 

 

 

 

What is a consonant digraph? 

 

 

It is a combination of two or more letters that represent a sound that is different from the speech sound that the letters represent individually 

 

Example: (ch in chop) 

 

 

 

What is a diphthong? 

 

 

It’s two adjacent vowels in which each vowel is heard in the pronunciation (ou in house).

 

 

What is the schwa sound? 

 

In many words that have more than one syllable, one of the syllables receives less or diminished stress. The sound of the vowel in the syllable that receives the diminished stress has a softening of the vowel sound that is identified as a schwa sound and often pronounced as “uh” sound. The word “about” contains the schwa sound. 

 

 

 

 

What is a vowel digraph? 

 

It’s two adjacent vowels that represent one speech sound 

 

Example: (ee in feet)

 

 

 

 

What are emergent readers? 

 

 

Readers that imitate the reading process, display reading readiness skills, use illustrations and prior experiences to make predicteions and to support comprehension, and possess soem degree of phonemic awareness. 

 

 

 

Early Readers

 

 

Early readers rely on grapho-phonemic inormation to sound out words as a decoding strategy, can begin to read simple text with some degree of success, and they begin to notice features from language and text like punctuation and captialization, as well as the use of bold print and variation in format. 

 

 

 

What are newly fluent readers?  

 

 

Newly fluent readers can self monitor their reading, identify and correct simple errors with minimal support, ask clarification questions, handle more challenging vocabulary through the use of context clues.  Children at this stage are not totally independent readers but with practice and support from teachers, they soon become fluent and independent readers. 

 

 

 

What are informal asseessments? 

 

 

Observations, anecdotal records

 

 

 

What are IRI’s? 

 

 

 

Informal Reading Inventories are passages by reading level that contain comprehension questions.  They determine reading level. 

 

 

 

What are the 3 reading levels? 

 

 

independent, instructional, and frustration

 

 

 

 

What is the independent reading level? 

 

 

 

It’s when a student reads 95% or more of the words correctly. 

 

 

 

 

What is the instructional reading level? 

 

 

It’s when a student reads between 90% and 94% of the words correctly 

 

 

 

 

What is the frustrational reading level? 

 

 

It is when a student reads 89% of the words correctly?

 

 

 

What are formal assessments? 

 

 

They are tests for teachers to see where they can improve their instruction

 

Example: End of Chapter Tests

 

 

 

What is a summative evaluation? 

 

 

 

It occurs at the end of a specific time or course of study.

 

Ex: Benchmarks, STAAR

 

 

 

What are criterion referenced tests? 

 

 

CRT’s are the teacher attempts to measure each student against uniform objectives or criteria

 

The TAKS test was a criterion referenced test that assessed the implementation and the mastery of the TEKS. 

 

 

What is a norm referenced test? 

 

 

The purpose of a NRT is to compare the performance of a group of students.  This test is competitive because a limited number of students can score well. A plot of NRT scores resembles a bell curve. 

 

 

 

What are performance based tests? 

 

 

They assess students on how well they can perform certain tasks, students must use higher level thinking skills to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate ideas and data. 

 

Authentic Assessments- projects, observations, checklists, self assessments, etc. 

 

 

 

What are the 4 types of reading? 

 

 

  1. Choral Reading– reading with the teacher (all together)
  2. Read alouds– teaches vocabulary (wide reading), models a book
  3. Echo reading -reading after the teacher; Teacher reads then students repeat
  4. Shared reading– teacher reads aloud and students follow along and are asked to read certain words/phrases/sections of the story.

 

 

 

What is decode? 

 

 

deciphered word meaning, associating printed letters with the speech sounds the letters make. 

 

 

 

What are context clues? 

 

 

 

It is using pictures and other information in the text to inform your understanding of an unfamiliar word.

 

 

 

 

What is reading fluency? 

 

 

 

The ability to read accurately, quickly, with good prosody, and effective comprehension.

 

 

 

 

What is prosody? 

 

 

 

Melody of speech. Stress, pitch, tone, tempo

 

 

 

 

What automaticity? 

 

 

 

Being able to automatically read the word. 

 

 

 

What are text-to-self connections? 

 

 

It’s connecting the text to your own life. 

 

 

 

What are text-to-text connections? 

 

 

Connecting text to other literature

 

 

What are inferential questions? 

 

 

Questions that use ideas in the text along with background information 

Ex: Predicting

 

 

 

What are evaluative questions? 

 

Questions that ask S to make value statements about a piece of literature

 

Example: Judging the outcome

 

 

 

What is a balanced approach to literacy? 

 

 

It’s the use of different strategies and approaches to teach reading.  

 

Ex: Guided reading, independent, buddy, silent

 

 

 

What are idioms? 

 

 

Figurative sayings that have special meanings

 

Example: “Keep your shirt on!” means “Don’t get angry!”

 

 

 

What is readers’ theater? 

 

 

It’s the oral presentation of drama by two or more readers using a printed script; normally used to create motivation and oral fluency.

 

 

 

What are thematic units? 

 

 

They are instructionally generated learning activities that center on a topic of interest.

 

 

What are literary elements? 

 

 

  1. setting
  2. character
  3. ploet
  4. style
  5. point of view
  6. mood/tone
  7. theme

 

 

What is the point of view? 

 

 

The perspective from which a story is told

 

 

What is the mood/ tone? 

 

 

The feeling the author wants you to get from the story.

 

 

 

 

What is the theme? 

 

 

 

The main idea of the story. 

 

 

What are the steps to the writing process? 

  1. Brainstorming/prewriting
  2. Drafting
  3. Revising
  4. Editing
  5. Publishing

 

 

 

 

What is a semantic or concept map (word cluster) 

?A method of expanding understanding by writing a word or concept in the center circle of a cluster, drawing rays, and writing information about the word or concept in the “outer bubbles” to make connections/relationships between the word or the concept.

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