Disability Studies

ADA
Americans With Disability Act: definition based on the Rehabilitation Act, so not the same definition used in other laws.
An individual with a disability is one who:
1) has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities
2) has a record of such impairment; or
3) is regarded as having such impairment
Olmstead
The money follows the person, not the institution. Provides more funding for community-based services so that people can move back home instead of forced to be in a nursing home. More money to Medicaid waiver programs; support in the form of personal care, adult day care, assisted living, etc.
IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. It is our nation’s special education law, enacted in 1975 originally to make sure that children with disabilities had the opportunity to receive free public education just like other children. Most recent amendments passed in 2004 and 2006. Dictates how states and school districts provide special education
Due Process
the IDEA includes rules of procedure for resolving disputes between parents and schools. Include mediation, due process hearings, and appeals to state or federal courts. Special education cases are similar to medical malpractice cases.
LRE
the Least Restrictive Environment: defined as the education setting where a child with disabilities can receive a free appropriate public education designed to meet his or her education eneds while being educated with peers without disabilities in the regular educational environment to the maximum extent appropriate.
–special education is not a “place” but a set of services
–learning in less restrictive environments benefits students both with and without disabilties
Deinstitutionalization
long-term trend wherein fewer people reside as patients in mental hospitals and fewer mental health treatments are delivered in public hospitals.
–directly due to the process of closing public hospitals and ensuing transfers of patients to community-based mental health services in the late 20th century
–illustrates evolution in mental health care in the US
Normalization
involves the acceptance of people with disabilities, with their disabilities, offering them the same conditions that are offered to other citizens.
–includes “the dignity of risk” rather than an emphasis on “protection”
Section 504
Congress implemented Section 504 or the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 in 1977. Means that access for disabled people means more than just physical access, it means everything such as a modified assignment.
OCR
Office for Civil Rights
FAPE
Free Appropriate Public Education is one provided by public schools that:
1) designed to meet the individual educational needs of persons with a disability as adequately as the needs of the non-disabled persons are met
2) are based upon adherence to evaluation, placement and procedural safeguard requirements
Handicapism
Promoting unjust or unequal treatment for individuals with disabilities
-assume that a disability implies handicap
-seeing them as victims
-seeing them as brave or valiant
-as afflicted
-avoiding people with disabilties
-speaking about people with disabilities in their presence, rather than to them
-seeing the disability, rahter than the person
Privilege
a right or immunity granted as a peculiar benefit, advantage, or favor
Bias
a particular influential power that sways the judgment; the inclination or propensity of the mind towards a particular object
Prejudice
refers to a negative or hostile attitude toward another social group or individual
Discrimination
refers to an unfavorable action, behavior, outcome or treatment. the distinction is simple: prejudive is a though or attitude; discrimination is the expression of that. One can occur without the other.
Exceptionality
deviating widely from a norm of physical or mental ability; used especially of children below normal in intelligence; “special education provisions for exceptional children”
Special
a euphemism for someone with a disability
Moral Model of disability
there are many cultures that asociate disability with sin and shame, and disability is often associated with feelings of guilt, even if such feelings are not overtly based in religious doctrine
Medical Model of disability
regards disability as a defect or sickness, which must be cured through medical intervention
Social Model of disability
proposes that barriers and prejudive and exclusion by society are the ultimate factors defining who is disabled and who is not in a particular society.
–differences that may sometimes be impairments do not have to lead to disabilty unless society fails to acommodate and include them in the way it would those who are normal
The Disability Model
has taken hold as the disability rights and independent living movements have gained strength. This model regards disability as a normal aspect of life, not as a deviance and rejects the notion that persons with disabilities are in some inherent way “defective”
Self-determination
combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior.
–an understanding of ones strengths and limitations is necessary
Ableism
stereotyping, negative attitudes, and discrimination toward people based on a mental or physical disability
–used to describe inherent discrimination against people with disabilities in favor or people who are not
Supercrip
1) people with disabilities should be admired because they are “superheroes” just by participating in everyday activities
2) image of people “overcoming” their disabilities to acheive superhman feats that most able-bodied people do not attempt
SSI
Supplemental Security Income: a federal income supplement program funded by general tax revenues (NOT social security taxes)
–provides basic needs for aged, blind and disabled people who have little or no income
SSD
Social Security Disability Insurance pays benefits to you and certain members of your family if you are insured (meaning you worked long enough and paid SS taxes)
–only for TOTAL disability, no partial or short term (> one yr or to result in death)
–only if you are determined to not do the job you did before or any other job
IEP
an Individualized Education Plan means one that is designed to meet the unique educational needs of one child
IFSP
an Individualized Family Service Plan documents and guides the early intervention process for children with disabilities and their families.
developmental disability

term used to describe life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical impairments manifested prior to age twenty-two. Used most commonly to refer to disabilities affected daily functioning in 3 or more of these:

1) capacity for independent living

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2) economic self-sufficiency

3) learning

4) mobility

5) receptive and expressive language

6) self-care

7) self-direction

cerebral palsy
umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious diseases that cause physical disability in human development
ADL
activities of daily living is a way to describe the functional status of a person.  it is a tool in the biopsychosocial model of medicine. ie: dressing, eating, ambulating, hygiene

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