study of morphemes, their different forms and the way combine in word formation.
e.g. ‘unfriendly’ formed from ‘friend’, the adjective-forming suffix ‘-ly’ and the negative prefix ‘-un’.
Morphemes: freestanding and bound
smallest meaningful unit in a language. They cannot be divided without altering or destroying its meaning.

freestanding: can be used on its own e.g. kind

bound: can only be used with another morpheme e.g. un-

compound word
combination of two or more words which functions as one word.
e.g. self-made (adjective) (hyphenated)
e.g. flower shop (noun) (two words)
Delexical(ised) words
high frequency words which in their collocations with other words have little lexical content of their own. e.g. ‘Make’ in ‘make a mistake’.
content word/ lexical word/
c.f. ‘function words’
These refer to a thing, quality, state or action which have meaning (lexical meaning) when used alone.e.g. book, run, quickly.
function words (empty words)
Have little meaning of their own but show grammatical relationships in and between sentences.
Using an associated word to refer to something.
e.g. referring to the British monarchy as the Crown.

(hyponomy = the relationship between two words)

these general ‘umbrella’ terms may have many hyponyms. the specific term is hyponym
e.g. the ………… general word = vehicle
e.g. co-hyponyms = bus, car, lorry
e.g. superodinate = move
e.g. co-hyponyms = walk, run, swim
a superordinate may have many hyponyms. General term is superordinate and specific term is hyponym
e.g. superordinate = vehicle
e.g. co-hyponyms = bus, car, lorry
e.g. superodinate = move
e.g. co-hyponyms = walk, run, swim
words which are written the same way but which have different pronunciation and meanings.
e.g. lead. Dog lead. Lead on a roof.
words which sound alike but which are written differently and often have different meanings.
e.g. ‘no’ and ‘know’
Having two or more closely related meanings. e.g. ‘foot’
He hurt his foot. He stood at the foot of the mountain.
denotative meaning – denotation (noun), denotative (adj)
the part of the meaning of a word that relates it to phenomena in the real world or in a fictional or possible world.
e.g. the denotation of the word ‘bird’ is a two-legged, winged, egg-laying, warm-blooded creature with a beak. IN a meaning system the denotative meaning may be regarded as the central/ core meaning.
pragmatic meaning
this is the intended meaning of an utterance which takes into account relationship of speaker and hearer and knowledge of the real world.
e.g. Waiter asks ‘are you the fish?’
Additional meaning that a word or phrase has beyond its central (denotative) meaning. Show people’s emotions and attitudes towards the word or phrase…e.g. slim and thin.
short-term memory
(also now called ‘working memory’) = part of the memory where information which is received is stored for a short time whilst being analysed and interpreted.
long-term memory
part of the memory system where information is stored more permanently.
echoic memory
Very short-term auditory memory which lasts 3-4 seconds
skills and systems
these are the mode or manner in which language is used. listening, speaking, reading, writing
Structural view of language covers the study of language systems at the level of phonology, lexis, vocabulary and grammar.
a general term for examples of language use. i.e. language which has been produced as the result of communication. usually larger units of language such as paragraphs c.f. grammar
the driving force in any situation which leads to action. Often divided into intrinsic (enjoying language learning for itself) and extrinsic motivation (driven by external factors such as parental pressure, academic requirements.)
a belief that the nature of the learners should be central to all aspects of language teaching. Learning is dependent upon the nature and will of the learner
learner autonomy
principle that learners should be encouraged to assume maximum responsibility of their learning. Reflected in approach to needs analysis, for example.
Aims and Objectives
The underlying purposes of a course of instruction or a lesson.
Objectives are more specific descriptions of how the aims are achieved.
action research
teacher-initiated classroom research that seeks to increase the teacher’s understanding of classroom teaching and learning. Often involves small-scale research projects which result in action plan.
needs analysis
subjective data = learner’s attitude, expectation and learning styles
objective data = questionnaires and interviews
multiple intelligences (MI)
theory of intelligence which states human intelligence has multiple dimensions that must be acknowledged and developed in education.
Gardner’s 8 are:
1. linguistic
2. logical
3. spatial
4. musical
5. kinesthetic
6. interpersonal
7. intrapersonal
8. naturalistic
learning styles / cognitive style
Particular way of learning preferred by a learner which should be recognized by the teacher.
1. analytic versus global
2. visual versus auditory
3. intuitive versus concrete learning
the natural ability to learn a language.
any information that provides information on the result of behaviour. In teaching, this refers to comments made by learners or teachers concerned their success on learning tasks or activities.
concept checking
in teaching, the meaning of a new item, a term which is sometimes used to refer to techniques for checking the learner has understood the meaning.
a unit of language that forms a syntactic or semantic meaning but also has internal structurte of it’s own…e.g. longer than a sentence but shorter than a paragraph or longer than a word but shorter than a sentence. e.g. “In the final analysis,…”
multi-word (lexical)units
a sequence of word forms which function as a single unit.
e.g. look into = investigate. Often acquire meanings which are not predictable from their individual parts.
the way in which words are used together regularly. refers to restrictions on how words can be used together…e.g. surgeons perform operations, committes don’t perform discussions
fixed expressions
a segment of language made up of several morphemes or words which are learned together and used as if a single item. e.g. “To whom it may concern…”
affixation: prefixes, infixes and suffixes
a morpheme which is added to a word to change the meaning or function of a word.
prefix e.g. = unhappy
suffix e.g = kindness
infix = e.g. absobloodylutely (but bloody lexical item itself)
When a word or phrase is taken from one language and used in another e.g. al fresco.
the shortening of a word by dropping one or more syllables.e.g. doc from doctor
process of putting two or more words together to function as one word. Often are two words or hyphenated or one word.e.g. police station, self-government, headache
a change in the grammatical category of a word from one word class to another. e.g. “It pains me to think of it.” (………… of noun to a verb)
combination/ blend / portmanteau
the forming of words from beginning of one with the ending of another breakfast and lunch to form ‘brunch’
is the creation of a new word. This is not a very frequent way of creating new words…sandwich / hoover
This means part of a whole. A word denoting a subset of what another word denotes is a hyponym.
e.g.’finger’ is a …… of ‘hand’ because a finger is part of a hand. Similarly ‘wheel’ is a ……. of ‘automobile’.
a word which is opposite in meaning to another word. e.g. dead and alive
partial synonomy
When words share most of the necessary components or constituents. e.g. ‘finish’ and ‘terminate’ may share most of the characteristics with one another, but they are still different in some respects.
the ability to produce grammatically correct sentences
a word which has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word e.g. ‘hide’ and ‘conceal’
lexical item / lexeme
the smallest unit in the meaning system of language that can be distinguished from other similar units. It is an abstract unit and regarded as the same lexeme, even if inflected. ‘give, gives, given’ all belong to lexeme ‘give’. Also ‘hammer and tongs’. Each lexeme merits one entry or sub-entry in dictionary
lexical set
a group of words or phrases that are related to the same content, topic or subject. e.g. storm, rain, wind, snow, ice in relation to topic of weather
lexical / semantic field
organisation of related words and expressions which show their relationship witrh each other. e.g. kinship terms such as father, mother, brother, sister. The relevant features include sex, generation etc.
Absence of a particular word in a field is a lexical gap. e.g. no single word which covers cow and bull as there is for horse.
differences in pronunciation, grammar or word choice within a language. May be related to region, social class etc.
process of adding an affix to a word or changing it in some other way according to the rules of the grammar of the language. e.g. 3rd person singular verbs are often …….. in English by addition of an ‘s’.
relationship between the different forms of a linguistic unit…especially in morphology and phonology…
e.g. the related vowels /i:/ and /e/ deceive > deception
receive > reception are in alternation.
the features which give speech or writing the qualities of being natural and normal including native-like use of pauses, rhythm, intonation etc…
presentation practice production.
procedure used in a traditional British-based language teaching methodology. Refers to the stages of a lesson, particularly a grammar one.
Test teach test/ task teach task /
an approach to teaching in which students first do a task/ activity without teacher support to see how well they know a target item. The teacher then presents the new learning item and then sets another task/ test to assess their learning.
Especially popular for intermediate and above to enable teachers to establish learner’s needs.
teacher talking time
The total amount of time a teacher spends talking in a lesson. Many classroom activities seek to maximize the amount of STT e.g. group activities.
This is one way to describe three possible stages of a class. It stands for Authentic Use, Restricted Use and Clarification and Focus.

ARC could be used to describe the staging of a grammar presentation lesson which starts with an explanation of rules. Here it would have a different order: CRA.

In the classroom
Authentic use might be a conversation stage that is designed to include the language that learners should practise; restricted use could be a gap-fill exercise on the language, and clarification and focus an explanation of rules on the board.

linguistic competence
this is what we intuitively know about a language in order to be able to use it. The kind of internalized knowledge that allows us to distinguish well-formed from ill-formed sentences…even if we can’t say what the rule is.
Chomsky contrasts competence with performance (which is the way competence is realised).
This difference has also been called I-language (internalised language) and E-language (language put to use externally).
communicative competence
CLT (communicative language teaching) marked as major shift in 1970s from emphasis being placed on linguistic competence e.g.language systems (such as vocab and grammar) to communicative competence with an emphasis on real-life English usage and skills ability.
a technique commonly used (esp. in audio lingual method) for practising sounds or sentence patterns in language based on guided repetition or practice.
was a move away from drilling methods with communicative methodologies as they were seen as not involving meaningful communication.
esp. 1950s 1960s USA still very popular on CD courses
-a method of second language teaching which emphasizes:
(a) speaking and listening before reading and writing;
(b) use of dialogues and drills
(c) discourages use of mother tongue
Based on a belief that language is learned through forming habits.
a belief that human and animal behaviour can/ should be studied only in terms of physical processes, without reference to the mind. Psychologists such as Skinner use this and reinforcement as explanation for first language learning.
information gap
in communication between two or more people…where information is known by only some of those present.
Used in CLT to promote real communication between learners.
e.g. activity in which each student has some info/ clues to find a murderer but need all to communicate their info to solve the murder.
acquisition versus learning
the non-conscious process of rule internalization resulting from comprehensible input when the focus of the learner’s attention is on meaning rather than form


the conscious process involving the study of explicit rules of language and monitoring one’s performance.

product versus process
an emphasis placed on different kinds of results(especially in writing) and often imitating different kind of models


an emphasis on the composition processes which writers, especially, make use of in writing. (e.g. planning, drafting, editing)

acc to Widdowson, this is the function of a linguistic item as an element of a linguistic system.
e.g. if examine progressive aspect in terms of usage we would compare it to other tenses and aspects in English.)
acc to Widdowson, a linguistic item can be studied in terms of its function in a part of a system of communication.
e.g. how it is used in discourse for performing a communicative act
a type of discourse that occurs in a particular setting. It has distinctive patterns ans norms of organization and structure. It also has a particular communication function. e.g. business report, letter, advertisements
In reading, the reader anticipates certain features of the text to be present.
tonic syllable / nucleus
when discussing suprasegmental phonology, a tonic syllable is the most important part of a tone unit at which point the change of pitch begins. Crystal calls this the ‘nucleus’ of the tone unit. e.g. In the utterance “We prefer dancing” (as opposed to swimming) then the tonic syllable is the ‘dan’ of dancing.
skimming / reading for gist
rapidly reading a text to get the main ideas of the text. e.g. reader might skim a film review to see if writer liked the film
reading a text to find specific information and ignoring everything else
e.g. when consulting a bus timetable to find info for particular time and destination
extensive reading
leisurely reading of longer texts, usually for pleasure or to accumulate more vocab or develop sound reading habits. Usually outside class using graded readers, authentic texts or literary texts.
c.f. intensive reading
intensive reading
the way short texts are subject to close, detailed classroom study. e.g. reading text in a coursebook
c.f. extensive reading
reading sub-skills
-detailed reading (reading a text in order to extract maximum detail from it. e.g. following instructions for a household appliance)
?-reading aloud
Top down processing
Using higher-level knowledge of text types and styles as well as non linguistic knowledge of the situational and cultural context and background, knowledge about a topic (schema) to make sense of a text.
c.f. bottom-up processing
bottom-up processing
The use of linguistic knowledge such as knowledge of words, how they are spelled and pronounced, and a knowledge of grammar to make sense of a text.
c.f. top-down processing
interactive processing
In order to comprehend a text both top-down processing (utilizing experiences, knowledge of culture, background, knowledge of style and usual layout etc) and bottom-up processing (utilizing identification of meanings of words, grammar, spelling, punctuation etc)involved and they modify each other in order for a reader/ listener to comprehend a text.
schema theory
theory that in understanding a language people, activate relevant schemata in order to process new experiences quickly and efficiently. Schemata serve as a reference store from which people can retrieve existing knowledge into which new information is assimilated.

content schemata = general background knowledge related to a subject e.g. an earthquake
formal schemata = rhetorical structure of language and a person’s knowledge of the structure of a particular genre e.g. a formal letter

genre theory (genre approach)
an approach to teaching writing which bases a writing curriculum of different types of genres and structures whichare important in communities in which learners will function. e.g. hotel, hospital
Discourses from the target speech community are studied in terms of text types and roles which characterize them. e.g. formal letter of apology
Listening sub-skills
-perceiving individual sounds
-segmenting stream of speech into recognizable units
-using stress and intonation cues to distinguish new and given information
-attending to discourse markers and predict changes in direction of talk
-guessing meaning of unfamiliar words
-making inferences about what is not stated
-selecting key information for purposes of listening
-integrating incoming information into schema of the speech event so far
intensive listening
the way short listening texts are subject to close, detailed classroom study. e.g. listening to a dialogue from a coursebook several times for understanding, phonological purposes etc.
c.f. extensive listening (e.g. listening to music, the radio for pleasure and to gain more vocabulary and general listening skills)
transactional functions of language
The use of language is primarily to communicate kinds of information and completing different kinds of real world transactions. This is primarily message-focused. e.g. a letter of complaint in order to get a some form of compensation.
c.f. interactional function which is person-orientated. Differ in terms of such things as turn-taking, discourse management etc.
interactional functions of language
The use of language is primarily on social interaction and communicate such things as rapport, empathy, interest and social harmony. This is primarily people-focused.
c.f. transactional function which is message-orientated. Differ in terms of such things as turn-taking, discourse management etc.
e.g. Utterances such as ‘Rain again!’ when speaking to a stranger at a bus stop.
extensive listening
leisurely listening to longer texts, usually for pleasure or to accumulate more vocab or develop sound listening habits. Usually outside class using music, radio, internet etc..
c.f. intensive listening
paralinguistic features
non-linguistic means of vocal communication e.g. use of different types of voice quality (e.g. breathy), loudness, intonation and tempo.
Also, non-vocal features of communication, such as eye contact, gestures etc.
the lexical approach
Has chosen vocabulary as the main focus for syllabus design and classroom teaching. c.f. grammar. Emerged from corpus linguistics and research into collocation, frequency which has shown predictability of a great deal of language. The choice of words which go with others are constrained not so much by grammar as collocations and formulaic language (chunks). Michael Lewis: ‘language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar.’
grammaticalised lexis
The basic principle of the lexical approach, then, is: “Language is grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar” (Lewis 1993). In other words, lexis is central in creating meaning, grammar plays a subservient managerial role. If you accept this principle then the logical implication is that we should spend more time helping learners develop their stock of phrases, and less time on grammatical structures.
It is/was + (just/only) + a figment of + possessive + imagination (c.f. parts of speech)
Observe Hypothesize Experiment
Michael Lewis claims in ‘Lexical Approach’ (1993)that students should be allowed to Observe (read or listen to language) which will then provoke them to Hypothesise about how the language works before going on to the Experiment on the basis of that hypothesis. This was a rejection of the PPP approach.
Inductive approach
also ‘discovery learning’
the process of working out rules on the basis of examples.
This is thought to be how we internalize L1 rules. Core principle of ‘natural methods’ such as audiolingualism and direct method.
More recently inductive procedures seen as consciousness-raising with help long-term learning.
c.f. deductive learning
Deductive approach
Learners are presented with the grammar rules with they then apply.
e.g. the teacher explains how to form past tense of regular verbs and then asks Ss to form past tense of given regular verbs. Associated with grammar-translation method.
c.f. inductive learning
guided discovery
in inductive learning, when the teacher/ coursebook may want to speed up correct hypthesis forming or steer away from wrong hypotheses, the learner may be guided to form, for example, the correct rule by being asked concept questions.
-c.f. deductive learning
communicative language teaching (CLT)
AKA Communicative approach (1970s)
Umbrella term to describe major shift in emphasis from teaching language systems (e.g.grammar and lexis) in isolation to teaching people how these systems were used in real communication. Shift from emphasis on linguistic to communicative competence.
Two main schools (deep-end TBL) and weak CLT (learn language and then use it.)
Makes the task the basic unit for learning. Contrasts with grammar-based learning and part of CLT. Strong version = you learn by using language e.g. Bangalore Project N.S. Prabhu but now more weak forms too with some focus on form… ‘you learn and then use’. BC ELTons ‘Marcos Benevenides ‘Whodunit?’ TBL book)
declarative knowledge
(factual knowledge) one of 2 ways information is stored in long-term memory. Information which consists of consciously-known facts, concepts or ideas that can be stored as propositions.e.g. tense system in English stored as set of rules or facts.
c.f. procedural knowledge
procedural knowledge
knowledge we have about things we know how to do but which are not consciously known…e.g. ‘how to ride a bicycle’. Acquired gradually through practice. Many aspects of L2 learning consist of procedural c.f. declarative knowledge.
prescriptive grammar
a manual that states rules for how language should be used, rather than how it is used. will state things such as…. ‘Never end a sentence with a preposition’. Coursebooks which aspirte to Standard English edit out non-standard English.
Descriptive Grammar
a grammar that tells you what people do say. Often taken from Corpus info e.g. Collins COBUILD
Pedagogical grammar
A grammar designed to help language learners with rules of thumb, not necessarily as comprehensive as descriptive grammar. e.g. may find in the back of coursebooks and aimed at level of learner.
Universal Grammar
Theory that all languages share certain fundamental principles. Chomsky used so could state that we are genetically programmed with an innate language learning faculty. (LAD)
UG describes basic set of abstract principles that this biological mechanism is supposed to contain. This supposed to account for fact that FLA is always 100% successful. Whether a person can learn L2 depends on access to UG.
systemic functional linguistics (SFL)
M. Halliday developed approach:
language is a resource for communication in social contexts c.f. abstract formal system. ‘Systemic’ reviews to view of language as a network of interrelated systems (semantics, lexico-grammar, phonology)and functional refers to choices that people make in order to exchange meanings through language.
grammar translation (method)
developed out of the classical languages were traditionally taught. First institutionalised in Germany mid-19thC.
Taught deductively and grammatical accuracy prioritized.
Grammar rules are practised and tested through the translation of isolated sentences in and out of target language. Contrived nature of these sentences gave it a bad name.
audio-lingual method
Became widespread in 1950s and 60s esp. in USA. Distinctive feature was drilling of sentence patterns.
Claimed to be science-based on the facts that:
1. language was based around sentence struycture
2.behaviourist belief that languages were learnt as a type of habit-formation.
Translation and metalanguage discouraged. Accuracy seen as precondition for fluency.
Errors very bad and learners given few opportunities to make them.
e.g. of lesson = repeat and memorize scripted dialogue and then pattern-practice drills.
1960s Chomsky’s arguments that languages learned by innate rule-based competence blow but programmed learning still very popular multi-media mail-based courses.
Direct Method
umbrella term for range of teaching methods which all shared belief that only use target language in the classroom.
Form-meaning relationships established using pictures, realia, demonstration etc.
Berlitz most famous proponent. Developed out of increased international travel and commerce.
Contrasted to grammar-translation method and developed into audiolingualism in USA.
Primarily associated with Chomsky’s belief that language is an innate property of the mind.
Reaction to behaviourist view of language acquisition.
Mentalist view assumes the existence of a built-in UG and pre-supposes an inborn language acquisition device. (LED)
a theory of psychology which states that human and animal behaviour can and should be studied only in terms of physical processes, without references to the mind. Used by Skinner, Osgood and Staats to explain FLA. Language teaching method associated with it was audiolingualism with practice drills and avoidance of errors.
Processing conditions

Interaction skills involve the ability to use language in order to satisfy particular demands. There are at least two demands which affect the nature of speech. The first is related to the internal conditions of speech, that is the fact that speech takes place under the pressure of time, which is commonly called processing conditions. The second kind of demand involves the dimension of interpersonal interaction in conversation, which is called reciprocity conditions.

Hypotaxis is the grammatical arrangement of functionally similar but “unequal” constructs (hypo=”beneath”, taxis=”arrangement”), i.e., constructs playing an unequal role in a sentence.

A common example of syntactic expression of hypotaxis is subordination in a complex sentence.

Another example is observed in premodification. In the phrase “inexpensive composite materials”, “composite” modifies “materials” while “inexpensive” modifies the “composite materials” , rather than “composite” or “materials”. In this example the phrase units are hierarchically structured, rather than being on the same level, as compared to the example “Cockroaches love warm, damp, dark places”. Notice the syntactic difference; hypotactic modifiers cannot be separated by commas.

A literary technique, in writing or speaking, that favors short, simple sentences, without the use of coordinating or subordinating conjunctions:
e.g. “I came, I saw, I conquered”
c.f. unequal constructs in hypotaxis
formulaic expressions
sequences of two or more words that operate as a single unit.
They are not generated word by word, but are stored away in our memory, and retrieved as if they were one-word lexical items. Also called lexical ‘chunks’.
Various categories:
-collocations: densely populated
-phrasal verbs: get up
-idioms: part and parcel
-sentence frames: would you like a…?
-social formulae: See you later.
-Discourse markers: By the way…
the leaving out of elements of a sentence because they are either unnecessary or because their meaning can be worked out from the immediate context. Utterance B is elliptical.
A: Is Joe at work today?
B: No, but Joe is [at work today].
Hesitation devices
AKA pause fillers

In order to maintain fluency, speakers need to avoid frequent, long pauses. One way of doing this is to use pause fillers (e.g. er, um)…or also, discourse markers can be used for this purpose (actually, you know) or repeat the word ‘It’s, it’s, it’s tropical.’

in conversation analysis these are the verbal signals given by listeners to indicate expressions of interest, attention, surpise etc.) e.g. ‘Really?’ ‘And…?’
Reciprocity conditions
The reciprocity condition of speech refers to the relation between the speaker and the listener in the process of speech. In a reciprocal exchange both participants share the conversation so there are at least two addressees and two decision-makers. Thus the speaker has to be able to adjust his vocabulary and message to take the listener into account. He has to have the ability to be flexible in communication.
Interaction skills
Interaction skills involve the ability to use language in order to satisfy particular demands. There are at least two demands which affect the nature of speech.

The first is related to the internal conditions of speech, that is the fact that speech takes place under the pressure of time, which is commonly called processing conditions.

The second kind of demand involves the dimension of interpersonal interaction in conversation, which is called reciprocity conditions.

negotiation skills
Negotiation of meaning is a series of exchanges conducted by participants in a conversation to help themselves understand and be understood by each other. e.g. as obvious as asking if the listener understands… or more commonly, leaving pauses looking for signals such as nods, a tilted head and then maybe continuing, repeating, rephrasing.
In discourse analysis (conversation analysis), the basic unit of talk is a turn.
The way to manage the roles or listener and speaker and avoid talking at the same time or long gaps in conversations is turn-taking.Leaving a pause, changing intonation etc may signal and end of turn for example.
The rules for turn-taking may differ from one community to another.
systemic knowledge
Knowledge of the language systems (grammar, lexis, phonology and
discourse) which we employ when de-coding a text. We rely on this
knowledge when employing bottom-up processes strategies.
interactive listening
Listening in which the listener also speaks, such as a two-way conversation.
intensive listening
Listening to a text very attentively, usually to focus on language use in the
interactional listening
Listening whose primary aim is to establish, maintain or build social relationships. There is little real exchange of facts or information.
extensive listening
Listening to extended pieces of text in order to practice listening skills in general, or to acquire vocabulary, with no overt study or language aims.
schematic knowledge
Our knowledge of the world and how circumstances and situations tend to develop, which allows us to build a mental representation of a given context.

In the classroom, we tap into this knowledge in order to create interest in a listening text.

Holistic Approach
An approach to listening which advocates providing learners with lots of opportunities for listening, and lots of practice in the skill, in the belief that practice makes perfect. No development of sub-skills is encouraged.
Non-interactive listening
Listening situations in which the listener has no opportunity to speak.
multi-word verbs
if separable, then the particle will be an adverb. e.g ‘Turn the TV on.’

But if it’s inseparable e.g. Look after your suitcase, then it’s a preposition – it must have an object.

And some verbs have both adverb and preposition e.g. I can’t put up (adv) with(prep) the noise.

an expression which functions as a single lexical unit and whose meaning cannot be worked out from its separate part.
He kicked the bucket.

He died.

a word which joins words, phrases or clauses together…e.g. and, but, when

Co-ordination = joining linguistic units of equal rank using co-ordinating conjunctions…e.g.
‘Shall we go home OR to a cinema.’
Subordination = through use of subordinating conjunctions (aka subordinators)…these join an independent and subordinate clause… “UNLESS it rains, we’ll play tennis at 4.”

Modal auxiliary verb
A verb is used with another verb to add grammatical function and indicates the attitude of the speaker/ writer towards the state or event expressed by the other verb.
e.g. I can play the piano. can = ability
any of the different variants of a phoneme. similar but perceptibly different.
e.g. aspirated /p/ in ‘pot’ and unaspirated in spot.
formative assessment
a test or assessment which takes place during a course of instruction that inform the learner and teacher how well a student is doing.
lexical cohesion
the use of grammatical and lexical means to achieve connected text, either spoken or written.
e.g. Reference words ‘this, the, it’, linkers ‘However,’ and topic-related lexis.
a grammatical category which is used to indicate the time at which an action happens by changing the form of the finite verb. English has two: past and present.
e.g. he walked and he walks.
authentic assessment
a test employing tasks which replicate real-life activities e.g. role playing a job interview, writing a letter of complaint, or reading and completing an application form.
minimal pairs
two words which differ from each other in pronunciation by only one phoneme…e.g. met, mat, pin, bin
product writing
an approach to developing learners’ writing skills that is informed by the belief that creating written text is purely a matter of imitating elements that are provided in a model.
process writing
(in teaching composition)an approach which emphasizes the composes processes writers make use of in writing (such as planning, drafting and revising) and which seeks to improve writing skills through developing their use of effective composing processes.
speech acts
an utterance as a functional unit in communication.
2 types of meaning:
i) locutionary meaning- the basic literal meaning of an utterance as conveyed by the words and structures
ii)illocutionary meaning- the effect the utterance has on the reader/ listener.
adjacency pairs
a sequence of 2 related utterances by 2 different speakers. the 2nd utterance is always a response to the 1st.
complaint – denial
a)you left the light on
b)It wasn’t me!
conversational maxim
An unwritten rule about conversation which people know and which influences the form of conversational exchanges.
e.g. a) let’s go to the movies.
b) I’m washing my hair.
A just made an offer and B uses the ‘maxim’ that speakers normally give replies that are relevant even though it doesn’t appear to be connected.
Grice 4 maxims:
1-quantity (as much as need)
2-quality (truth)
4-manner (clear and brief)
-the co-operation between speakers = co-operative principle and implied meaning = conversational implicature
co-operative principle
There are unwritten conversational rules ‘maxims’ about conversation which people know and which influences the form of conversational exchanges.
e.g. a) let’s go to the movies.
b) I’m washing my hair.
A just made an offer and B uses the ‘maxim’ that speakers normally give replies that are relevant even though it doesn’t appear to be connected.
Grice 4 maxims:
1-quantity (as much as need)
2-quality (truth)
4-manner (clear and brief)
-the co-operation between speakers = co-operative principle and implied meaning = conversational implicature
a pattern of interaction between 2 or more people in discourse, especially small group and classroom discussions.
T initiate ‘What is answer to number 3?’
L respond ‘present perfect’
T follow-up ‘Yes, well done’


? 70% classroom discourse

in phonology segmental phonemes are the vowels and consonants of a language
c.f. suprasegmental features such as intonation
place of articulation
the parts of the mouth and throat that are used in the production of speech sounds.
a) bilabial /p/
b) labiodental (lower lip, upper teeth) /f/
c) interdental (tongue touching upper teeth) /?/
d) alveolar ridge /t/
e) back of tongue touching velum (soft palate) /k/
error analysis
The field of applied linguistics which collects and assesses learners’ errors in order to analyse what learners get wrong, why, and what we need to do in classroom in order to minimise those errors.
same spelling and pronunciation but different meaning: bat
Global error
in error analysis.
an error in the use of a major element of sentence structure, which make a sentence or utterance difficult or impossible to understand.
e.g. I like take taxi but my friend said so not that we should be late for school.
performance mistakes
This is a type of mistake, caused by performance factors (e.g. pressure of speaking spontaneously, isn’t caused by lack of cognitive knowledge.
competence-based fault
an error caused by a gap in the learner’s knowledge. i.e. Yesterday, I swim early. for beginner who has not come across past simple.
pre-systemic error
The learner is not aware of any rule at all, so it is not part of his/her system.
e.g. Beginners without knowledge of past simple. “Yesterday, I swim at 5 o’ clock.’
systematic errors
errors which occur when the learner has found a rule but is applying it wrongly.
e.g. I swimmed yesterday.
post-systematic errors
May be for one of two reasons…
-Learner has learned a rule but not THE rule and is applying it consistently wrongly…e.g.”I swimmed early yesterday.” Has learned -ed to form past simple but not that swim is irregular.
-learner knows the correct rule and, when thinking about it, is accurate.
interlingual errors
in error analysis.

results from language transfer from L1…’It pleases me.’ from Greek ??? ??????.

c.f. intralingual error

intralingual error
results from faulty or partial learning of target language. Maybe one area of target language influences other.
e.g. He is comes. from He comes and He is coming.
c.f. interlingual error
L1 interference
aka language transfer

Can be positive

e.g. many English medical terms are from Greek and so easy to recognise and learn. ??????????

or negative

e.g. empathy is a negative emotion in Greek

manner of articulation
The way in which speech sound is produced in the speech organs. e.g.
a) plosive: released suddenly e.g. /t/, /p/
b) fricative: allowed to escape with friction e.g. /f/
c) affrictive: stopped-then released slowly with friction /dz/

or voiced and unvoiced

In phonetics. Manner of articulation.
A voiced speech sound is produced using vibrating vocal chords e.g. /b/ as compared to unvoiced sounds such as /p/.
consonant clusters
a sequence of two or more consonants at the beginning of a syllable /spl/ in splash or at the end /sps/ in crisps. Languages have different rules about how many variants of clusters can be permitted and where. e.g. Spanish permit fewer than English and Polynesian languages, none at all.
glottal stop
In phonetics: A speech sound which is produced by closing the glottis, trapping the airstream from the lungs… followed by a sudden release of air as the glottis is opened. In some varieties of English a glottal stop is used instead of a /t/. e.g. in Cockney ? in bottle
In phonetics and phonology
A unit which extends over more than one sound in an utterance. e.g. stress and tone. esp. used by American llinguists
word stress
The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a word. used to be that in long words the degree of stress was distinguished e.g. primary and secondary stress. Now, mainly to distinguish between two words.e.g. reCORD and REcord. (verb and noun, respectively).
connected speech
spoken language when analysed as a continuous sequence as opposed to the analysis of individual sounds or words in isolation
strong form
the form of a word which is pronounced when it is stressed or spoken in isolation (often to change the meaning of an utterance). The term is normally applied to words that normally occur with a werak fornm (e.g. TO, A, THE)
a phonological process in which a speech sound changes to become more like (or identical to) a a speech sounds which precedes or follows it.
regressive assimilation = when following sound brings about a change in the preceding one green park… greem park
progressive assimilation = when preceding sound brings about a change in following one.
elision (noun) elide (verb)
leaving out of a sound in rapid speech
e.g. suppose becomes spose (elision of vowel sound)
e.g. mosly = elision of /t/ consonant
the reduction of a linguistic form and often it’s combination with another form…
e.g. they are …they’re
did not ….didn’t

Used in speech and informal writing

catenation: the linking of sounds together in speech, such as the grouping of phonemes into syllables and words. 2 languages may have the same sounds but combine them in different ways… e.g. Spanish speakers may say /esteik/ because they don’t combine /st/ before a stressed vowel.
sentence stress
refers to the pattern of stressed and unstressed words in a sentence or utterance. English sentence stress most commonly falls on content words that contain new information.
liaison/ linking
Process in continuous speech which connects the final sound of one word or syllable with the initial sound of the next. Often in English, words have a glide to link them together:
be able has a /y/ and blue ink has a /w/ glide.
instrusive sounds
when an extra consonant is added at the end of a word to link it to the following word starting with a vowel. In English the intrusive /r/ is often added, especially before AND:
China and Japan.
/?a?n?r ?n ??p?n/
the boundary between two phonemes accounting for the flow and pauses between sounds in speech. 3 types are recognized:
1. closed juncture: rapid transition between sounds in speech e.g. /s/ /p/ in speech
2. open juncture: is characterized by a slight pause between sounds, as in pronouncing I scream as opposed to ice cream
3. terminal juncture is characterized by a pause after a sound, as before and after ‘Mrs Brown’ in ‘My employer, Mrs Brown, is from Canada.”
in phonetics, a collective term for variations in loudness, pitch and speech rhythm
when speaking, people generally raise or lower the pitch of their voice, forming pitch patterns. They also give some syllables in their utterances a greater degree of loudness and change their speech rhythm. All of these together are called……. It is used to carry information over and above that which is expressed by the words in the sentence.
received pronunciation RP
the type of standard English pronunciation which is traditionally considered the prestige variety and which shows little or no regional variation. (popularly known as BBC English).
e.g.s = speakers of RP do not have an /r/ sound before a consonant, though Americans do, as in farm /fa:m/ not /fa:rm/
General American GA or GAE
an accent of American English which is perceived to be both standard and neutral (free of regional characteristics). Originally modeled after Midwestern dialects.
a particular way of speaking which tells the listener something about the speaker’s background. The pronunciation may show:
a) the region or country they come from. ( a northern accent. an American accent)
b) what social class they belong to e.g. (a lower middle class accent)
c) whether or not the speaker is a native speaker of the language (Speaking English with a German accent.)
a variety of a language, spoken in one part of a country (regional dialect)or by people belonging to a particular social class which is different in some words, grammar and / or pronunciation. A dialect is often associated with a particular accent.
syllable-timed languages
A language, such as Spanish, with a rhythm in which syllables tend t occur at regular intervals of time. The length of an utterance depends on the number of syllables rather than the number of stresses.
stress-timed language
A language, such as English, with a rhythm in which stressed syllables tend to occur at regular intervals of time. The length of an utterance depends on the number of stresses rather than the number of syllable. e.g.. BILL WORKS HARD takes about the same amount of time to say in English as BILL’s been WORKing HARD. The shortening of the other words is a process called accommodation.
In grammar. the resources provided by a language (such as verbal auxiliaries, prefixes and suffixes) to encode different perspectives taken by the speaker towards the activities, events and states. English has two aspects: progressive and perfect.
authentic materials – situation – materials
With development of communicative approach and, especially ESP (English for Special Purposes), authenticity became important.
Grade the task not the material became important.
-Authenticity of materials would include using real newspapers, TV news etc from a selection of genres.
-Authenticity of interaction/ situation aimed to reject exchanges such as ‘Do I have a nose on my face? Yes, you do. To interaction that may actually use outside the classroom.
process-oriented theories
There are two main classes of theories in language learning: condition-oriented and process-oriented. Each one emphasizes a different set of factors that play a critical role in the way students can learn best.

With this theory, the focus is on learning processes, rather than the conditions that allow them to happen. The idea is that if you can drill down the processes, you can replicate it for as many individuals as possible. This includes concepts such as

Hypothesis testing

condition-oriented processes
There are two main classes of theories in language learning: condition-oriented and process-oriented. Each one emphasizes a different set of factors that play a critical role in the way students can learn best.

These types of theories focus on the human and physical context in which language acquisition can take place. For example, they answer questions like:

What situations does a person need to find himself in to gain the necessary motivation and experience to successfully adopt a new speaking?
What characteristics does a good language learner have?
Where can someone best acquire a language?

Method developed by James Asher in the early 1970s. Like Natural Approach it is a COMPREHENSION APPROACH, believes Ls only need to understand input and only speak when they feel ready. (silent period). Based on way YLs learn.
Due to physical and mental aspects, it’s a holistic approach in HUMANIST camp.
Becomes more difficult to learn with advanced levels.
The Silent Way
Caleb Gattegno in 1960s. Humanist approach. oO language learning personal process, ‘Only the learner can do the learning.’ Teachers utilise props such as Cuisinaire Rods. (one of lasting results of the initial methodology). Fidel charts (colour coded charts representing the sounds of the language.) Ls surrender to the melody of language – esp in grammar function words.
Works esp. in small classes.
The affective filter hypothesis
Krashen ” there’s an affective filter which controls the amount and quality of input learners receive.
Ls with a low affective filter are emotionally well-diposed to processing input…but those with stress, anxiety or negative attitudes will slow down or block rate of ACQUISITION.
Affective factors that positively or negatively influence language learning are emotional states such as pleasure and anxiety.
Georgi Lozanov originator. In right conditions, human mind is capable of prodigious feats of learning. (superlearning).
Learner needs to be in right emotional state with no negative thoughts about learning (get rid of lthese through de-suggestion) e.g. listening to calming classical music, fictitious names and personae. Teacher reads dialogues and their translations while Ls sit and listen and follow text. learning is subliminal.
Emphasis on positive Affect makes suggestopaedia humanist approach.
Faith in effortless, unconscious learning anticipated approaches such as neuro-linguistic programming.
Community Language Learning CLL
Developed by Charles Curran in US 1970s. Humanistic tradition. Based on principles derived from counselling therapy.
Learners (clients)are centre stage, allowing them to decide the content of the lesson. Teacher (knower) adopts consultant role.
Best-known technique involves learners seated in circle, having a conversation about what they want to. If needed, they consult the teacher to help formulate utterances. This is audio-recorded, sentence by sentence and then played back, translated, transcribed on the board and read aloud.
As a whole, not often practised but group generated conversation often used successfully.
The Natural Approach/ Method.
First used in C19th to describe methods such as Direct Method that attempted to mirror first language acquisition.
Translation and grammar explanations rejected. Ls exposed to sequences of actions and spoken form taught before written form. Tracy Terrell in 1970s used similar term… Ls exposed to meaningful language and not forced to speak until ready to and then, not corrected or given explicit grammar instruction.

A lot of teacher talk, made intelligible through visual aids.
Endorsed by Stephen Krashen, whose input hypothesis gave it theoretical validity.
Much similar to TPR…comprehensible input, silent period, promoting positive affect in learning process.

Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis
According to Stephen Krashen’s acquisition-learning hypothesis, there are two independent ways in which we develop our linguistic skills: acquisition and learning. [1] This theory is at the core of modern language acquisition theory.

Acquisition of language is a subconscious process of which the individual is not aware. One is unaware of the process as it is happening and when the new knowledge is acquired, the acquirer generally does not realize that he or she possesses any new knowledge. According to Krashen, both adults and children can subconsciously acquire language, and either written or oral language can be acquired. This process is similar to the process that children undergo when learning their native language. Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language, during which the acquirer is focused on meaning rather than form.

Learning a language, on the other hand, is a conscious process, much like what one experiences in school. New knowledge or language forms are represented consciously in the learner’s mind, frequently in the form of language “rules” and “grammar” and the process often involves error correction. Language learning involves formal instruction, and according to Krashen, is less effective than acquisition.

Krashen’s Hypotheses
the acquisition-learning hypothesis;
the monitor hypothesis;
the natural order hypothesis;
the input hypothesis;
the affective filter hypothesis.

The acquisition-learning distinction is the most fundamental of these and the most widely known among linguists.

Monitor hypothesis
This asserts that a learner’s learned system acts as a monitor to what they are producing. In other words, while only the acquired system is able to produce spontaneous speech, the learned system is used to check what is being spoken.
Before the learner produces an utterance, he or she internally scans it for errors, and uses the learned system to make corrections. Self-correction occurs when the learner uses the Monitor to correct a sentence after it is uttered. According to the hypothesis, such self-monitoring and self-correction are the only functions of conscious language learning.
The Monitor model then predicts faster initial progress by adults than children, as adults use this ‘monitor’ when producing L2.

3 conditions for use of the monitor:

1.) The acquirer/learner must know the rule
2.) The acquirer must be focused on correctness
He or she must be thinking about form, and it is difficult to focus on meaning and form at the same time.
3.) The acquirer/learner must have time to use the monitor
Using the monitor requires the speaker to slow down.

The theory underlies Krashen and Terrell’s comprehension-based language learning methodology known as the natural approach

Natural Order Hypothesis
hypothesis that in children’s FLA, all kids acquire certain rules, forms and items in a similar order. e.f. English kids acquire progressive -ing, plural -s, and active sentences before third person -s, or passive sentences.
Said to show natural order of development. In SLA learning appears to be in a natural order, though not the same as FLA.
Natural Order Hypothesis
The Input Hypothesis, I + 1 ,ROUGHLY-TUNED INPUT
Input is spoken or written language that learners are exposed to.
Krashen ” input is all that is necessary for language acquisition to take place. BUT must be comprehensible input and must contain grammatical forms that are one step more advanced than current state of Ls interlanguage.
(The +1 represents new knowledge or language structures that we should be ready to acquire.)
This ‘roughly-tuned’ input is enough to kick-start the Ls internal language acquisition process so that no overt teaching of grammar is required. Enhanced input = speech, texts with flooding of target language point.
Teacher’s role is to ensure graded language input.
Neuro-linguistic programming NLP
theory John Grindler and Richard Bandler in 1970s abt the way the mind processes experiences and language.
Shares with MI theory view that the mind is predisposed to process experiences in different ways. (sight, smell, hearing etc..) Learners also have different preferred thinking styles (metaprograms)…some prefer rules, some examples. Should try to adjust their ‘mental maps’ to the way they are taught.
Theory in which children (as indies or groups) are taught all their school subjects in a language which is not their own…aimed at fostering bilingualism.
The earlier and more total the immersion the better the results.
CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning
aka content-based teaching
teaching a subject such as geography, through English.
strong form of communicative approach in that there is no predetermined language syllabus. Instruction is organized solely around the content.
Closely related to immersion.
A term taken from the film industry which is used to support the language teaching principle that the classroom should be rid of excessive materials and resources in order to focus on real communication ‘ pedagogy of bare essentials’. Scott Thornbury and Luke Meddings ‘Teaching Unplugged’ how to use the principles.

Learner-centred instruction

mechanics of writing
– handwriting (orthography)
– spelling (sometimes official -like Sweden- other times use
– punctuation (system of marking text with commas, full-stops etc. in order to make the structure clear. Features vary from language to language and needs to be addressed. Probably after the full stop, in order to convey sentences, the correct use of commas most important to convey understanding.
instant writing
where we provoke students to write things (words and sentences) immediately, rather than giving them time to think about it. Designed to give them writing confidence.
collaborative writing
where students (usually in GROUPS) work together to produce a piece of writing.
process in SL writing classes of engaging students in activities that require correction of discrete errors in their writing…such as error in grammar, spelling etc.
journal writing / learning log
Use of notebook or book or online tool such as Penzu, in which s write about their experiences both in and out of school. Provide Ls with a chance to reflect on learning…usually shared with teacher but not graded. Way of encouraging writing fluency.

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