Reservoirs and Intake Structures

In the event of an Algae Bloom.

What happens to the level of organic material in the reservoir?

It will Increase.

True or False

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Each Reservoir should have a water quality management program that is designed to the reservoir’s individual needs.

TRUE
True or False

Fertilization pratices are best controlled through long-term public education programs?

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TRUE
How can proper reservoir managemnet techniques prevent or minimize fish kills?
  1. Reduction in clogging of fish gills with algae.
  2. Reduction in disolved oxygen depletion in water beneath ice.
  3. Reduction in rapid oxygen depletion.
  4. Reduction in intensity and serverity of algae blooms.
  5. Reduction in turbidity loading.
If large algae bloom are a problem at any reservoir, the managing agency should develope a laboratory ans personnel capable of obtaining what types of data?
  1. The extent of the algae bloom.
  2. The intensity of the algae bloom.
  3. The spwecies of algae that is in bloom.
  4. Taste and Odor problems associated with the bloom
  5. Water quality problems that may arrise from the bloom.
Define –  Reservoir
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a structure for holding water, either manmade (dams, and lakes) or naturally occurring (lakes).

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Three characteristics about Reservoirs
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    1. Reservoirs used for domestic supply range in size from 100 acre-feet to several million acre-feet.

    2. Reservoirs may be open for recreational use either year round or certain times during the year.

    3. Reservoirs may also prohibit recreational activity.

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Treatment of water contained in a reservoir can range from_____ to______.

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    1. Direct Filtration

    2. Complete Treatment

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Reservoir nutrient levels vary and the type and quantity of life varies accordingly. These differences are classified as:

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    1. Eutrophic– having high nutrient levels and an abundance of aquatic and plant life.

    2. Mesotrophic– having moderate levels of nutrients and moderate amounts of aquatic and plant life.

    3. Oligotrophic-having very low levels of nutrients and low levels on aquatic and plant life.

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In reservoirs with abundant life the life is concentrated in the _______or shallow water.

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Littoral Zone
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Several problems with water quality in reservoirs can be directly related to ________.

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Algal Blooms.
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5 Problems associated with Algal Blooms include:

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  1. Taste and Odor problems

  2. Shortened filter runs in complete treatment plants

  3. Increases in  pH ( which interferes with chlorination efficiency)

  4. Dissolved oxygen depletion

  5. Organic loading

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Define- Watershed
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A watershed is the area surrounding a reservoir or lake or stream that is used for a water source and is defined by its topography. Basically, the highest point above the supply from which surface runoff will occur and flow to the water supply.

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What effects water quality within a watershed?
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The type of activities that take place in the watershed will also greatly affect the quality of the water supply. Is the area wooded, has there been any wildfires, is the area agricultural, is it cropland or is it pasture land, is it industrial or residential. All of these activities can affect water quality.

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How dose recreational activity effect reservoir quality?
The type and frequency of recreational activity can also affect the water quality of a reservoir.

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Define – Thermal Stratification
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Thermal Stratification occurs when the surface water becomes warmer and lighter than the colder more dense water below. These layers stratify because they resist the mixing action of wind turbulence.

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  1. Some reservoirs and lakes have one cycle of stratification and mixing, they are called_______

  2. Those that undergo two cycles are called ______

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  1. monomictic.
  2. dimictic.
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Name 3 layers in stratification have different and their characteristics:

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  1. The upper layer that continues mixing is called the Epilimnion.

  2. The middle layer is the zone of rapid temperature decrease with depth is called the Thermocline or Metalimnion.

  3. The lowest layer of colder, denser water is called the Hypolimnion.

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To combat the problems of stratification reservoirs implement destratification programs. These include :

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    1. Aeration – the process of passing air through water or water through air.

    2. Reaeration- the introduction of air through forced air diffusers into the lower layers of the reservoir. As the air rises through the water the dissolved oxygen is replenished into the water.

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Describe Reservoir Intakes
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Intake structures vary with each reservoir. They range from single intake structures set at a certain level to multiple level structures that can draw water from different depths to cope with stratification and thermoclines.

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Intakes have some commonalities, these are
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Intakes do have several things in common; they are all screened, and have multiple ports.

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