Cunningham Chapter 1 Review

How can you help children understand the importance of reading and writing?

Connect reading and writing to real-world situations, for example, by creating a game where the students write articles about their classmates. In this situation writing is necessary to know each other better. Also, when children see adults reading, they begin to understand that reading is not only for school or homework.

What are conventions?

They are arbitrary rules about how we proceed through print.

What is jargon?

All the words we use to talk about reading and writing.

What is the difference between phonological and phonemic awareness?

The former talks about the awareness of the language structure, how sentences are made up of words and words made up of syllables. The latter talks about the ability to recognize that words are made up of a discrete set of sounds. The former is much broader.

What are one of the benefits of learning rhymes and songs?

Children increase their phonemic awareness, as they feel the beats/parts of the word.

What is shared reading, what are predictable books?

“Shared reading” refers to a book being shared by the teacher and student. First the teacher reads it, then the student. Teachers use “predictable books” that would intrigue students in reading them independently later.

Why is it important for children to have confidence in their reading skills?

When a child has confidence, he or she is excited to improve and advance.

What are some of the exercises teachers could use to enhance phonological awareness?

Teachers can play sentence-structure games with their students. For example, by forming a sentence with flashcards, on the board, or with students themselves acting as words and punctuation of the sentence.

Why should children participate more in class?

To feel part of the learning process, to feel engaged in an exciting activity.

Why is it important to hang student work on the walls of the classroom?

For students to feel that even though their work is not perfect, it is still valued. Also, maybe for students to track their own progress during the course of the year.

Why should a teacher pay close attention to the types of words she or he chooses during the lesson?

These words should each be put on the board for a purpose. For example, they would be new words, or simple words that are most often not noticed. The Teacher should make sure that these words convey a positive understanding or theme, such as friendship, (as in the example: “My friend is Emma.”)

Should children be allowed to write before they know how to write?

Children should be greatly encouraged to do so, and the more they practice (even if it is just scribbling) the better they will become in writing and reading.

How could a teacher create a print-rich classroom?

The teacher could put posters and student work on the walls, as well as names and the alphabet on the tables.

Why is it beneficial for the teacher to “think aloud” when she or he is writing on the board?

This way the children will be more acquainted with the jargon and conventions of writing/reading. They will follow the process of writing a sentence step by step.

If a student is trying to write a word, but does not remember/know how to spell it, what should he or she do?

The child should either look for the word anywhere in the print-rich classroom, or stretch the word out (sound by sound).

Why should a long exercise be split into different sessions?

Children do not have a long attention span, 20 minutes is the maximum for a lesson or exercise.

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