CTEL prep: Vocab/Gen’l Concepts

syntax
acceptable order for words in sentences in a particular language. Rules vary from language to language.
English syntactic rules
rules that govern the order of words in English sentences. For example, adjectives generally precede nouns, and direct objects follow verbs.
cohesion
in language, it is the level at which the parts are connected. Related to syntax.
coherence
degree to which the rules of semantics are followed so that the text makes sense. Related to semantics.
prior knowledge
things the learner already knew from past experiences. By first activating this knowledge, new learning can be better connected to old lrng, improving comprehension.Tchr may need to “fill the gaps” once the extent of the old knowledge is assessed.
aural comprehension
ability to understand that which is heard
digraph
combination of two letters to form one sound. Examples: th, ph, ch, qu, sh.
dipthong
combination of two vowels to form one sound. Requires movement of the tongue. Examples: ay, oi, i-silent e.
schwa
vowel sound in an unaccented or unstressed part of a word.Examples: “uh” sound in alone or Dinah.
consonant clusters
consonants that are not separated by vowels and are pronounced together. They can be initial (beginning of a word), medial (middle) or final (end).
CVCC words
consonant-vowel-consonant cluster. Examples: lamp, ring. Part of a language learning progression, preceded by CVC, and followed by CCVCC, etc.
compound
word made up of two or more morphemes
intonation
changes in pitch or stress that help make meaning, such as raising pitch at the end of a question.
pitch
speaker’s high or low tone of voice
modulation
changing or control of one’s frequency during speech: quiet to loud, low- to high-pitched, etc.
syntactic category
include the parts of speech as well as phrase categories like verb or noun phrases
contrastive analysis
Linguistic study of similarities and differences between 2 languages. Used to predict why some language elements are harder to learn than others. Can difficulties w/lrng L1 predict difficulties w/lrng L2?
decoding skills
ability to analyze and make sense of symbols that make up a language, both written and verbal. Includes the ability to recognize letters, sounds, patterns, syllables, etc.
spelling patterns
Common combinations of letters. Knowing “ea” sound helps with “head” and “bread.” Patterns aid comprehension.
morpheme
Smallest part of a word that has meaning and cannot be further subdivided. “Happy” has one; “unhappy” has two.
lexical morpheme
a base word, a prefix, and infix, or a suffix.
grammatical morpheme
morpheme that performs a function such as a preposition, or that gives inflection, such as -ed or -est.
phonology
the study of the sounds in languages, particularly the sounds that are distinct in each lang. and the systems of sounds
phoneme
smallest possible unit of sound in a language. Example: /b/, /oo/, /th/ in “booth.” 41 in English
phonics
teaching of individual letter sounds and their relationship in combined letter sounds.
organized/systemic/explicit phonics
An organized order to the teaching of letters and sounds. Debate: is organized better than non-systematic or none at all?
cognitive process
conscious mental activities such as solving problems, making decisions, being creative, using imagination
pragmatics
study of how context clues give meaning to language; examination of rules of social interaction and speech in different contexts.
orthography
The sound-symbol code, a set of rules for writing a language, including spelling and punctuation
structural analysis
breaking down a word into parts, such as base/root, prefix, suffix, and syllable.
apposition
grammatical function of placing words or phrases side by side to further describe them. Example: The man, my boss, is nice.
categorization
Cognitive process of placing items in groups that share characteristics, such as “animals” or “colors”
metacognition
the ability to know how one is learning, including making predictions on how well one might do at a task
using context clues
using surrounding pictures, words, etc. as an aid to understanding text
word structure
the way morphemes are placed together and ordered. For example in English, prefixes come at the beginning; we say unhappy, not happyun.
common English sentence patterns
*subject+verb
*Subject+Verb+object
*Subject+Verb+complement
*Subject+Verb+indirect object+direct object
*Subject+Verb+object+complement
communicative competence
Dell Hymes: understanding of how lang is used by diff speakers in diff contexts, knowledge of grmr,vocab, phonology/orthography, cultural context.

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