grammatical relationship between words and phrases within sentences. (word order, word agreement)
8 inflectional morphemes
ing, ed, s(plural), s(possessive), s(subj-verb agreement) en, er, est
bound morphemes
cannot stand alone (prefixes, suffixes)  
smallest units of meaning in a language re, ment, farm, photo, cranberry = only one bc cran has no meaning on its own
study of the structure of words and the smallest meaningful units that comprise them
the study of systems and patterns of speech S O U N D S in a given language
Structure of Language
includes: phonology morphology syntax semantics register
structure of language beyond sentence level (connection of sentences, information organized oral or written) “once upon a time…”
socio-linguistic competence
ability to use appropriate language in a variety of social settings
knowledge a speaker must have to interpret meaning of utterances of situation or context (ceremony – interview – lunch with a friend)
Free morphemes
Free = independent, can stand alone  (elephant, in, straw)


The following are found in which structure of language:


  • rules that govern correctness of a sentence
  • parts of speech
  • pattern relations that govern the way words in a sentence come together
  • simple to complex sentences
  • rules need to be explicitly taught beginning at the intermediate level
  • must be practiced orally and in written form




The following are found in which structure of language:

  • meaning
  • individual words and longer units (phrases and sentences)
  • sentence frames

DIFFICULTIES: multiple meaning words, false cognates, idioms language ambiguities

TEACH:  what transfers

BE AWARE: of what does not transfer


The following are found in which structure of language:

  • meaning of units
  • dog vs dogs
  • prefix suffix can change whole meaning
  • bound and free
  • inflectional endings (8)
  • greek and latin roots
  • irregulars can hinder EL learners


The following are found in which structure of language:

  • sounds
  • difficulties between languages

meaningful parts of words from which we can derive other words Greek, Latin, Anglo
study of the classes of words, their inflections, and their functions and relations in the sentence
communicative competence
ability to use appropriate language in any given setting
meaning in the context both verbal and non-verbal (hunting lions can be dangerous)
inflection of the tone or pitch of the voice, specifically the use of stress or pitch to convey meaning
intonation patterns
rise at the end of a question, the rise and fall in pitch of the voice in speech

languages are tonal or atonal.

Most languages are tonal.

6 pitch registers in Chinese and each has a different meaning


These all fall under what sub-topic:

multiple meanings





language use varies depending on the context or the location or the situation

  • dialect
  • register (language used in a certain situation – with boss, with spouse, business setting…)

3 facets of communicative competence

  • Function (Discourse – spoken & written) and

(Pragmatics – verbal and non-verbal)

  • Structure (Phonology, Semantics, Morphology and Syntax)
  • Variation (styles such as for context and purpose)

Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language

gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, distance between speakers (proxemics)


  • influenced by culture
  • can be offensive to other cultures
  • even smiling is culturally different
  • lack of eye contact can show respect



Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language


touching, styles (registers), dialect, figures of speech, silence

  • can cause misunderstandings (head patting)
  • student, teacher, principal all different registers
  • idioms are hard for EL learners
  • everything is interpreted differently

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