CSUN Admin Comprehensive Exam

 

Outline the procedures you would follow in conducting an action research program to improve student learning in school: (a) list the specific steps to be accomplished and (b) briefly explain its implementation.

 

 

Phase I – Problem Identification:

  • Why do you want to do it?  Is it an important and practical problem, something worth your time and effort, something that could be beneficial to you, your students and others?

  • Is the problem stated clearly and in the form of a question?  Is it broad enough to allow for a range of insights and findings?  Is it narrow enough to be manageable within your timeframe and your daily work?

Phase II – Plan of Action

  • Will you develop and implement a new strategy or approach to address your question?  If so, what will it be?

    • Implement the instructional practices consistently

    • Implement the instructional practices as they were designed to be implemented

    • Monitor student results

  • Will you focus your study on existing practices?  If so, which particular ones?

  • What is an appropriate timeline for what you are trying to accomplish?

Phase III – Data Collection

  • What types of data should you try to collect in order to answer your question?

  • How will you ensure that you have multiple perspectives?

  • What resources exist and what information from others might be useful in helping you to frame your question, decide on types of data to collect, or to help you in interpreting your findings?

Phase IV – Analysis of Data

  • What can you learn from the data?  What patterns, insights, and new understandings can you find?

  • What meaning do these patterns, insights, and new understandings have for your practice? for your students?

Phase V – Plan for Future Action

  • What will you do differently in your classroom as a result of this study?

  • What might you recommend to others?

  • How will you write about what you have learned so that the findings will be useful to you and to others?

 

 

  • The editor of the local paper has called and requested that you prepare an article on the Role and Purpose of Alternative Schools at the Secondary Level. Prepare such an article.

 

 

A. The role of alternative secondary schools…

  • Are designed to meet a variety of needs including preventing students from dropping out of school, providing another educational option, serving as a disciplinary consequence, or providing academic/behavioral remediation.

  • Are primarily designed for high school age students, although many states have schools that are serving younger students.

  • Are accessed by students in a variety of ways ranging from student choice (usually with some specified parameters) to mandatory placement.

  • Often have criteria for enrollment (e.g., students may be admitted as a result of suspension or expulsion or they must meet some form of at-risk criteria).

  • Serve students for varying amounts of time (e.g., short- term placement and transition back to traditional school; long-term commitment through graduation).

  • Offer educational programs that typically include one or more of the following; an emphasis on individual instruction, a focus on basic academic skills, social services (e.g., counseling or social skills instruction), and/or community or work-based learning.

B. The purpose of alternative secondary schools:

  • Alternative education programs, both public school-based and community-based, offer students who are struggling or who have left school an opportunity to achieve in a new setting and use creative, individualized learning methods. While there are many different kinds of alternative schools and programs, they are often characterized by their flexible schedules, smaller student-teacher ratios, relevant and career-oriented themes, and innovative curricula. Alternative education can be invaluable in helping communities offer multiple pathways to success for all high school-aged students, including those who are not succeeding in a traditional public school environment.

 

 

List five major curricular issues confronting educational leaders

 

 

Curricular issues are defined as anything that occurs or affects schools. Therefore the following five issues are…

  • Facilities
  • Class size reduction
  • Spec Ed
  • Encroachment on general fund
  • inclusion
  • ELs
  • Teachers need special training
  • Students need excellerated ELD
  • Impoverish learners
  • Learning gaps
  • Need nutrition (providing meals)
  • Qualified teachers
  • Teacher retention
  • School choice – vouchers
  • Achievement Gap
  • Budget
  • How you spend your money
  • Do you purchase a coordinator or TAs?

 

 

Steps needs assessment of curriculum of the school:

 

 

Build knowledge base:

  • Survey stakeholders – focused on what is working and what needs improvement?

  • Analyze standardized test scores

  • Analyze demographics of the schools (enrollment trends) (teachers’ experience)

  • Analyze the current curriculum

What resources are available?

  • Expertise

  • Professional development

  • Community

  • Materials

 

 

Three conditions conducive to bringing about curriculum change:

 

 

  • New legislation: change law or mandates in curriculum

  • New district policy: will change the mandates (top down)

  • Needs within the school – look at the test scores and needs and try to adapt to the school’s needs

  • Receptive staff – when teachers are willing to try something new, “buy in” and vision will bring change.

  • Receptive community – need a change leader – build parent/school partnership

 

 

Criteria used in selecting curriculum content:

 

 

alignment to the standards

alignment to district / school’s goals & vision

teacher friendliness – easy to use

cross-curriculum integration

assessment tools

developmentally sound

avoid cultural biases

support resources for universal access

 

 

Name and discuss are three critical curriculum issues that affect decision making.

 

 

  1. Differentiating instruction

    1. Spec. Ed

    2. ELs

    3. GATE

    4. intervention

  2. Facilities

  3. Professional Development

 

As a principal, you have been directed to evaluate the effectiveness of XXX curriculum of your school. Discuss your plan and what criteria you would use for evaluation.
1. understand and evaluate 6 types of curriculum a. taught b. learned c. assessed d. hidden e. recommended f. supported 2. develop school’s vision of quality curriculum 3. create a leadership committee 4. collect and analyze data 5. evaluate materials, teaching strategies, programs, support, etc…
Administrators are continuously faced with the task of making decisions with regards to issues, personnel problems, operational procedures, etc. Discuss the dynamics of the decision-making process.
I. Introduction: One of the most important skills an administrator can have is the ability to quickly process information and make decisions. A. On a daily basis, administrators must have the ability to make decisions in a split second. B. At any given moment, a problem may arise with a student, a parent, or even a teacher that requires an administrator to make an important decision. C. This decision is often made in a split second, but successful administrators are able to first identify a problem or issue, gather as much information on the issue, process the information into identified pros and cons and then make an action oriented decision. II. The first step of the decision making process is to identify the issue. A. In some cases, the issue may be public and obvious, such as a parent complaining to others in the middle of the hallway. B. In other cases, the issue may be hidden and need to be uncovered by the administrator, such as a teacher who is struggling with lesson planning in the classroom. C. Successful administrators are able to observe and note instances of problem and drill down to the root of the problem. III. The next step in the decision making process is to be able to identify all areas of the problem. A. Successful administrators gather as many perspectives and as much information on an issue as possible. B. Gathering information and seeing the issue from other perspectives allows administrators to make judgments that are not steeped in bias. C. Once the information is gathered, the administrator needs to cognitively process the information. IV. The final step in the thinking process during decision making is for the administrator to weigh the options possible. A. In some cases, this may mean doing something that is uncomfortable but necessary for legal or personnel reasons. B. Successful administrators are principle driven, making decisions that weigh the options, yet are centered around students and student learning. V. Finally, the decision making process leads to a conscious decision to either take action or purposefully not need to take action. VI. At the end of some decisions, it may be necessary for the parties involved to evaluate the decision and the decision making process. A. Successful administrators are able to learn from their previous mistakes and successes and reflect on how to improve.
You recently have been appointed principal in a new district. Describe the steps you would take to establish a school climate that encourages change and innovation on the part of the faculty and explain why each step is important.
Possible source to site: Collins “good to great”, Posner and Kouzes Five Practices of Exemplary Leaders, Dr. Gregory 650 Course. I. There has been much studied about excellent leadership practices throughout the course of history. A. Within education, the principal has the primary role of the school to build climate and trust among teachers and staff. B. Within education reform, innovation and change are leading forces to improve education. C. In their book, the five practices of exemplary leaders, Posner and Kouzes present a model for leaders to establish a strong culture and encourage opportunities for reform. II. The first practice is model the way. A. To model the way means to be leader who does what they say they will do when they say they will do it. B. This is important because a leader needs to have credibility. III. The second practice is to Inspire a shared vision. A. In order to create a school climate that encourages change and innovation, people need to feel connected and that what they are working towards is on the same page as those around them. IV. The third practice is to challenge the process. A. Often times in education, reverting back to what is safe or “normal” creates instances of bad practices or worn-out ideas. B. Allow others to feel safe challenging the process to create change. V. The fourth practice of exemplary leaders is enable others to act A. A leader can not do everything on their own. B. Leaders must delegate and set up successful systems for having others step up to take leadership opportunities. VI. The final practice of exemplary leaders is to encourage the heart. A. Team members need to feel valued and trusted. VII. These five practices will work to get a team invested in a leader, inspired by a vision, working towards change, and feeling trusted.
The board has requested that several of the school principals in the district prepare position papers dealing with the duties and responsibilities of a principal. You have been given the topic: “The role of the principal in enhancing the instructional process.”
Possible Sources to Site: Dufor and Eaker, Professional Learning Communities, Posner and Kouzes “Five Practices of Exemplary Leaders” Professor Garcia, Curriculum and Supervision of Instruction. I. Historically, the role of the principal in schools has been as an operational and personnel manager. A. With the current state of schools and the need for higher level of accountability and reform, school models are changing to a principal who is an instructional leader within the school. II. The principal has the primary responsibility of enhancing the instructional process. A. The first major role is to determine the needs and fit of teachers for the school; strong hiring must be the top priority to build a strong school and promote a culture of high level instruction. B. The next major role is to identify instructional goals for the school and to provide support to teachers for implementing these goals. C. A principal has the responsibility of setting up systems of support for teachers through coaches, professional development, and mentoring. III. There are multiple models for supporting curriculum implementation and supervision. A. A common thread in all of the models is a principal who is constantly in classrooms and is aware of what is going on to make strong decisions based on what is best for students.
You have been appointed principal of a new school in the district. At least half the staff will be new to the district. Describe what steps you would take to insure a climate that would permit and encourage innovation on the part of the staff as individuals and as a staff.
Possible source to site: Collins “good to great”, Posner and Kouzes Five Practices of Exemplary Leaders, Dr. Gregory 650 Course. I. There has been much studied about excellent leadership practices throughout the course of history. A. Within education, the principal has the primary role of the school to build climate and trust among teachers and staff. B. Within education reform, innovation and change are leading forces to improve education. C. In their book, the five practices of exemplary leaders, Posner and Kouzes present a model for leaders to establish a strong culture and encourage opportunities for reform. II. The first practice is model the way. A. To model the way means to be leader who does what they say they will do when they say they will do it. B. This is important because a leader needs to have credibility. III. The second practice is to Inspire a shared vision. A. In order to create a school climate that encourages change and innovation, people need to feel connected and that what they are working towards is on the same page as those around them. IV. The third practice is to challenge the process. A. Often times in education, reverting back to what is safe or “normal” creates instances of bad practices or worn-out ideas. B. Allow others to feel safe challenging the process to create change. V. The fourth practice of exemplary leaders is enable others to act A. A leader can not do everything on their own. B. Leaders must delegate and set up successful systems for having others step up to take leadership opportunities. VI. The final practice of exemplary leaders is to encourage the heart. A. Team members need to feel valued and trusted. VII. These five practices will work to get a team invested in a leader, inspired by a vision, working towards change, and feeling trusted.
The high school of which you are a principal will soon be visited by WASC. The local newspaper editor has called and indicated that she feels that the community knows very little about this undertaking and has requested that you prepare an article for publication which would explain the purpose and procedures of the accreditation.
WASC=Western Association of Schools and Colleges. This commission works to accredit schools such that colleges recognized diplomas from the school. The school grants accreditation to schools based on the presumption that the primary goals are: Certification to the public that the school is a trustworthy institution of learning. The improvement of the school’s programs and operations to support student learning. The school is substantially accomplishing its stated purposes and functions identified as appropriate for an institution of its type. The school is meeting acceptable levels of quality in accordance with the WASC criteria adopted by the accrediting commission. Procedures: 1. School completed documentation and application. 2. Initial accreditation for schools that meet criteria for full accreditation and have a history of a high quality program. 3. Candidacy is a status of affiliation indication that an institution has achieved initial recognition and is progressing toward, but does not yet assume, a accreditation. 4. Denial may result is the school does not fully meet WASC criteria. WASC is looking for criteria in five categories. The categories are: Organization Standards-based student learning in: Curriculum Instruction Assessment and Accountability School culture and support for student personal and academic growth. Essentially, WASC determines if a school is functioning correctly and providing students with a quality education.
2.8 Discuss the arguments for and against national/federal standards
Randi Weingarten, the head of the American Federation of Teachers, has come out in favor of national education standards. She declared that “Abundant evidence suggests that common, rigorous standards lead to more students reaching higher levels of achievement.”  She decried “the uneven patchwork of academic standards for students” across America, and asked, “Should fate, as determined by a student’s Zip code, dictate how much algebra he or she is taught?; For years many education reformers have argued for national education standards and tests.; They have warned against allowing the states to continue to craft their own yardsticks for academic achievement.; Regrettably, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) failed to do the former and permitted this latter practice to continue. NCLB established a fantastically complex metric, adequate yearly progress (AYP), to measure schools; academics.; Put crudely, AYP measures the annual growth in the percentage of a school;s students who score at or above the state standard for competency in a subject area.; Though well intended, this policy rewards perverse behavior.; States; can set low academic standards and then progressively water down their tests; rigor so that more and more kids pass them each year.; To create these standards, many have suggested that ;a broad-based group — made up of educators, elected officials, community leaders, and experts in pedagogy and particular content — come together to take the best academic standards and make them available as a national model. Here is a simple breakdown The Pros and Cons of National Standards In recent years, there has been an ongoing debate in education circles about the value of having a national set of standards that all schools throughout the country would use. Here are the arguments in a nutshell, pro and con: The Pros National standards would raise the level of expectations for all. If all schools across the country had the same standards, all students would be expected to achieve at the same level, no matter what state they live in. If students in Mississippi were required to know the same things as students in New York, for example, they would be prepared to attend universities throughout the country. National standards would assure that all American students meet international levels of achievement. We know that American students fall behind in math and science compared to their peers in other countries. With national standards, it would be clear what students need to know to compete internationally. National standards would make it easier for students to adjust to a new school when they move from one state to another. In an increasingly mobile population, it would be easier for students who currently face differing standards and different tests in each state. The Cons Education has traditionally been a right of the states. The United States has a long history of “local control” of schools that would be hard to change. The federal government or a federal agency should not dictate education in each state. National standards would create a one-size-fits-all framework. The needs within each state are different. National standards would not take into account the cultural and geographical diversity of our country. National standards would discourage innovation and creativity in the classroom. Too much similarity could lead to tightly prescribed curriculum in every classroom. What’s the Connection Between Standards and the No Child Left Behind Law? The drive to create state standards and tests was pushed in part by the passage of the No Child Left Behind federal law in 2002. The law requires each state to set standards for curriculum in reading, math and science. Students must be tested annually in reading, math and science in grades 3 through 8, and at least once in grades 10 through 12. All groups of students, including economically disadvantaged and special needs students, must show evidence of academic progress, otherwise the school gets penalized and parents have the right to choose another school or receive free tutoring. Critics of the law say it did not go far enough because it allowed each state to set its own standards. This created a system where some states have tougher standards than others. States can make tests easier so that more students can meet proficiency standards. Critics argue that this is exactly what has happened in some cases. Supporters of the law say that it has caused schools to pay significant attention to the lowest achieving students and to raising the bar for all students. Test scores, for the most part, are improving and students are learning.
List several rather specific practices or activities of classroom teachers that tend to contribute to their teaching effectiveness. Discuss in detail any two of these practices, and explain why they are so effective.
Small Group and Cooperative Learning: 1 Establish heterogeneous groups. 2 Establish group size. 3 Designate group work areas. 4 Designate specific responsibilities to group members. 5 Provide clear directions, time constraints, rules, procedures. 6 Provide necessary materials. 7 Establish leader selection process. 8 Minimize exchanges of information between groups. 9 Watch for conflict. 10 Encourage and praise group support. Direct Instruction 1. Specify clear lesson objectives 2. Teach directly to those objectives 3. Make learning as concrete and meaningful as possible 4. Provide relevant guided practice 5. Provide independent practice 6. Provide transfer practice activities Other Strategies Incorporate Thinking Maps Encourage Active learning Prompt feedback Communicate high expectations with rubric Move from simple to complex Accommodate learning styles (Differentiated Instruction)
IDEA (Previously Public Law 94-142) continues to have a tremendous impact on public education. Discuss four of the major features of this bill.
Public Law 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act)
In 1975, Congress passed Public Law 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act), now codified as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all children with disabilities. The state plans must be consistent with the federal statute, Title 20 United States Code Section 1400 et.seq.
Four Purposes of PL 94-142
“to assure that all children with disabilities have available to them…a free appropriate public education which emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs”
“to assure that the rights of children with disabilities and their parents…are protected”
“to assist States and localities to provide for the education of all children with disabilities”
“to assess and assure the effectiveness of efforts to educate all children with disabilities”
For children 6 to 17, the law specifies that states and local school districts must:
Make every reasonable effort to locate handicapped children and give first priority to the most severely disabled.
Evaluate the learning needs of each child, in consultation with parents and special education advisors, and develop and individual education program to meet these needs
Place these children in the least restricted environment as possible
Periodically evaluate the child’s progress and make changes as needed
Much has been written about mission statements of organizations, and you have learned the importance of a “shared vision” for your school. As the new principal of your school, present how you would develop such a statement and what you would need to do to ensure that it relates to the shared vision.
Schools are likely to be more successful in achieving in-depth learning when leaders work with staff and the community to build a collective educational vision that is clear, compelling, and connected to teaching and learning. This collective vision helps focus attention on what is important, motivates staff and students, and increases the sense of shared responsibility for student learning.
Schools are complex places, and teaching is a difficult and challenging job. Many schools do not have a clear and shared sense of purpose focused on student learning. Yet, without it, programs become fragmented, teachers lose motivation, and improvement efforts fail. Without a clear notion of what is important, work can become dissipated and undirected. Without a clear sense of direction, planning and decision making about programs, curricula, and instruction can remain uncoordinated.
Schools with educational missions give educators stronger motivation and provide parents with a clearer picture of what the school values. A clear vision and a common mission that identify the kind of learning to be achieved can help keep the school and the efforts of its staff and students on target.
School leaders should develop a clear, educationally focused vision and a well-defined mission statement, collaborating with school staff and community members to agree on the type of learning, beliefs, and goals that are important. A vision means an image of what the school can and should become. It is deeply embedded in values, hopes, and dreams. A mission statement is more specific and often defines what the school is trying to accomplish and for whom. It can be developed from the vision itself. Goals and objectives are still more specific and concrete, are derived from the vision, and can be used to focus change and improvement efforts.
Leaders should help develop a mission that is centered on student learning. The school mission should concentrate on key areas of high- quality student learning. But it also can concentrate on establishing a professional work environment that supports collegiality, improvement and profession growth, and an understanding of the importance of diversity
The school’s vision also can incorporate values and goals related to equity and justice, respect and appreciation for multiculturalism and diversity, and concern for the academic success of all students. These views of the school determine how people spend their time, what problems they solve, and how resources are distributed. Moreover, a clear understanding of the school’s vision and mission statement may lead to greater parent and community support. Thus, having a clearly defined and communicated vision supports active improvement and accomplishment.
Describe the methods and procedures you would employ, as a college administrator, to assess the quality of leadership within the school.
Mid quarter and end of quarter teacher evaluations
Suggestion/Comment box for all staff members
Observation of school environment
Evaluation of data for enrollment
List and describe 3 sources of conflict in an organization and tell what the supervisor can do to reduce each.
1)Structural conflict: lack of clear leadership roles defined
organization lacks ability to define roles and appoint duties to their roles, resulting in productivity being low
people do not know who to turn to for support, blame others when organization fails
a sense of lack of assuredness leads employees to not work at their best capability
what supervisors can do:
promote shared sense of responsibility by defining roles and duties
clearly state expectations
ask for constructive feedback to assess progress toward projects, are all involved feeling supported, have adequate resources

2) Interpersonal differences
-personal or stylistic differences between employees
-intolerance for diversity
-differences in values/purposes
-what supervisors can do:
-promote a positive, working climate
-remind stakeholders to stay focused on the goal
-promote collaboration and celebrate successes of staff

3) Lack of clear, consistent communication
-miscommunication keeps the organization from succeeding
-lack of open communication between employees and supervisors keep the organization from working forward toward the goal
-employees do not feel kept up-to-date with relevant information, expected to produce outcomes without proper notice
-overall climate shifts to frustration
-what supervisors can do:
-make themselves accessible at all times
-be willing to listen to all parties
let others to make suggestions to projects
-provide communication in paper, via emails, face-to-face, at weekly meetings
-be organized in presenting ideas and reasonable in stating expectations

Legislation has recently been introduced in the California Legislature that would make a fine and/or imprisonment mandatory for any student assault on a teacher. Discuss the pros and cons of such a law.
Pros
-students are aware of consequences and sends clear message to students that if found guilty they could be convicted and sentenced to imprisonment or paying a fine
-if a minor, parents are held accountable
-sends strong message to school and local community that it is not tolerated
-courts must balance students’ constitutional rights against the duty of public school officials to maintain an appropriate environment for learning and safety

Cons
-students may think their assault is worth the fine, how do we apply value towards physical assaults/threats
-what is the support for the teacher…after the sentence does the student return to the classroom with the assaulted teacher?
-after the sentencing, what kind of corrective rehabilitation will be in place with the jail time or monetary sentence….what will be done to prevent this act from happening again?

Many schools face sanctions from No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Discuss two components of this program and how an administrator might respond in affecting change.
-NCLB: reauthorized a number of federal programs aiming to improve the performance of U.S. primary and secondary schools by increasing the standards of accountability for states, school districts and schools, as well as providing parents more flexibility in choosing which schools their children will attend. Additionally, it promoted an increased focus on reading and reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965 (ESEA)

-key components: standards, assessments, accountability, and teacher quality

component 1: Standards
– according to information from the Department of Education, states are required to have assessments that align with their standards.
-administrators need to make sure teachers are providing standards-based instructions with all the curriculum
-schools should provide parents with the standards their children are expected to learn throughout the course of the school year
-students should be given objectives that outline the standard in which they are engaged in during the lesson
-annual assessments are based on the grade level standards

component 2: teacher quality
-teachers must be “highly qualified” to teach core academic subjects
-principals must implement effective professional development practices in order to better support teachers in their teaching practices-areas included are math, science, and reading
-consistent, on-going, effective assessments of staff is crucial
-administrators need to be available to support staff with various concerns/issues
-to ensure quality, all teachers should be provided with mentors/partners to effectively promote collaboration and staff support
-practice effective interviewing practices to ensure the hiring of true, highly qualified candidates

4-6 You have recently been appointed to the position of Dean (indicate the are). Describe the steps you would take to insure maximum participation of your staff in the decision making process.
4-8 One of the main responsibilities of a college administrator is to obtain maximum results from group effort. Describe several of the most significant requirements for effective group participation.
**THESE QUESTIONS ARE VERY SIMILAR…SO SAME RESPONSE FOR BOTH
Source: Posner, Kouzes

-implement the 5 practices of exemplary leadership

1) Model the way
-find your voice: requires clarifying values and expressing yourself
-clarify your values: need values to guide actions and decisions, you can’t believe in the messenger if you don’t know what the messenger believes
-clarity of values will give you great confidence in finding your authentic, true voice
2) Inspire a shared visions
-discover a them and imagine possibilities
-listen deeply to others, discover and appeal to a common purpose, give life to the vision by communicating expressively (interpreting the vision)
3) Challenge the process
-leaders calculate the risk/failure and proceed
– search for opportunities: seize the initiative, make challenge meaningful innovate and create, look outward for fresh ideas
-experiment and take risks: learn from mistakes, promote psychological hardiness
-make it safe to experiment, give people choices, conduct pre and post assessments for every project
4) Enable others to act
-leadership is a team effort, need to foster collaboration and trust
-essentials of fostering collaboration: create a climate of trust, facilitate positive interdependence, support face-to-face interactions
-Covey: trust is glue of relationships, improves happiness and attitude
-trusting leaders are open to alternative viewpoints
-leaders must foster a sense of mutual benefit: tasks are structured so each person makes a contribution to the end product/result
-strengthen others: ensure self leadership, provide choice, develop competence and confidence, foster accountability
5) Encourage the heart
-accomplish through recognizing contributions: focus on clear standards, expect the best, pay attention; celebrating the values and victories: create a spirit of community, tell a story, set the example
-examples at schools: set up bragging board, schedule celebrations, create a commemorative award honoring exemplary actions

Essay Topic 2-5 ( Principles and Practices of Curriculum, Instruction, and Supervision).

Name and discuss three forces/agencies, external to the local schools that are currently contributing to the initiation of curriculum change in California.

An initiation of curriculum change has a major impact on student achievement. In California, three forces/agencies to the local school that are currently contributing to this initiation are the state legislature, No Child Left Behind Act, and scripted curriculum such as High Point and Developing Readers and Writers Curriculum (DRWC).
Serrano v. Priest had a major role in shifting financial control from local school districts to the state. Because of the financial shift, curriculum also became a part of the state’s control. Contrary to popular belief, local schools and school districts do not have control in changing or altering school-wide curriculum. The state, in following education codes and federal regulations, establishes curriculum by which all districts follow and implement. The districts will set parameters of accountability and will be responsible for full transition and implementation of particular curriculum.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 attempts to eliminate educational inequity by ensuring curriculum is standards based, accountability measures exist around personnel and teacher certification. As a result of this legislation, states receive federal money in order to establish resources that will meet the terms and guidelines of No Child Left Behind. Today, schools establish pacing plans that reflect units and objectives derived from state standards. In addition to teacher generated assessments, there are periodic assessments which serve as benchmarks and indicators of success and areas for growth in preparation for the California Standardized Test.
Scripted curriculum is a third force that contributes to the overall initiation of curriculum change in California. Teachers who teach ESL are not only responsible for moving their students so that they can be successful in their core English courses, but also acquire the basic skills in English. There is not much room when delivering lessons that are derived from scripted curriculum.
The state of California, through legislative mandated curriculum, No Child Left Behind Act and scripted programs imposes curricular accountability for all schools and act as three forces to local schools contributing to the imitation of curriculum change.
School-based Management has been implemented by some major school districts and is being considered for implementation by other school districts. List three (3) disadvantages of school-based management.
School-based Management is a form of giving schools autonomy and personalized voice based on a school’s vision and mission. With this independence come potential pitfalls or disadvantages. Three disadvantages of school-based management is top-down leadership, lack of support from local district offices and outside agencies, and a narrow view of student achievement.
Although, School-based Management has the potential to influence and motivate all stakeholders to impact student achievement at a grand scale, this key step or skill may be overlooked when establishing this type of school reorganization. Top down reform is a major concern for many educators when school-wide mandates around curriculum, supervision, discipline, parent involvement, and culture exist. Without investment from key stakeholders, school-wide structure or procedures for whole school commitment, a school climate that is directed by school leaders governs the reform effort.
When schools are given majority control and independence, there is an effort of decentralization where school sites are left to make critical decisions and make important decisions with a lack of specific guidance from district leadership or other colleagues at other school sites. This may create difficulties in understanding the proper channels…
Districts provide student achievement data that is comprehensive and includes neighboring schools as a form to track growth and overall decision making. Schools that operate on their own lack a few of the resources to acquire such information; thereby making critical decision.
There are many advantages to School-based Management with regards to improving student achievement. With those advantages come disadvantages such as top-down leadership, lack of support from local district offices, and a narrow view of student achievement that may hinder a school from moving forward.
The increase in required courses mandated by changes in the state law and college entrance requirements have seriously decreased the opportunity for students to enroll in elective courses. Cite several arguments for and several arguments against the increase in required courses.
Possible sources to site:

Many state laws and college entrance requirements have impeded districts from enrolling students in elective courses

Several arguments for…
Additional AP courses for advanced grade levels
Equitable opportunities for CST/College entrance exams

Several arguments against…
Students lack of a “well rounded” education
Cuts in programs will create wider gap for minorities and disadvantaged students…students are already at a disadvantage with math and literacy levels behind in grade level…a few electives provide reasons for students to attend school in addition to overall instructional program

The president of your college or university has decided that each major division should have an “Advisory Committee” made up of faculty, students, alumni, and community members. Describe four precautions that you, as a division head, would take with the establishment of this committee.
As a division head, it is a top priority to invest all major stakeholders in our division by creating channels of communication, accountability and overall autonomy. My next step in establishing an advisory committee for my division would be to closely survey and triangulate data in order to make informed decisions and next steps. As I move forward, the four precautions that I would closely monitor in the establishment of my division’s Advisory Committee are ensuring a common vision, established norms and regulations, structured communication, and follow-through.
Ensuring a common vision would keep every stakeholder, regardless of background and experience, centered and focused on our division’s specific outcome. In addition, a vision that integrates the overall university vision; yet, establishes personalized commitment…Celebrating individual strengths are areas for growth…delegates responsibility for overall accountability and investment.
Once vision and trajectory has been shared and established, a set of norms of conduct must be established and carefully monitored. Norms easily lose their spirit when not followed through. Norms will remind members to remain focused on vision and goal…norms will create a sense of urgency and will allow for team members to hold each other accountable…provide commendations and recommendations for future meetings and work.
Communication is key for teams to work collaboratively and in partnership. It allows for professional feedback to exist in addition to next steps. Effective communication from all stakeholders would be key to monitor in order to ensure all members share the same vision along the way and are given adequate support in necessary.
In order to build and sustain the investment of faculty, students, alumni and community members, it will be important act on all concerns, action steps and proposals with a sense of urgency and focus. The advisory’s self-efficacy is critical in moving forward with the divisions overall vision and goal…as a division head it will be important to follow-through on all meeting next steps in order to build trust and critical relationships in moving forward.
A supervisor can facilitate effective communication. Discuss three (3) of the skills necessary to facilitate effective communication.
Listen Carefully: Truly effective communication goes both ways. While it might be difficult, try really listening to what your coworkers are saying. Don’t interrupt. Having the ability to listen can go a long way. By listening you’ll understand them better and they’ll be more willing to listen to you.
Try To See Things from different Points of View: As a person in a supervisory role you must develop the ability to see things from different points of views. Try to really see the other side, and then you can better explain yours. We talk a lot about our point of view to get the other person to see things our way. Ironically, if we all do this all the time, there’s little focus on the other person’s point of view, and nobody feels understood.
Trust: This is by far the most important aspect of effective communication. If people do not trust the messenger they will not believe the message. Ability to develop trust among stakeholder is essential in the success of any institution.
Katz, and several other writers in the field, has suggested that the school administrator should process considerable skills in echo of three general categories–human skills, technical skills, and conceptual skills. For each of these categories, discuss briefly three tasks of the principal that demand expertise in the specific skill (i.e., three human, three technical, and three conceptual).
I. Human skills
(Establishing Relationships… Results come from an intimate and supportive relationship – a relationship based on mutual participation – Kouzer ; Posner)

Establishing an Open Door Policy supports face-to-face interactions creating a climate of trust, facilitates positive interdependence, and creates an avenue in which instructional feedback can occur.

Enlisting others in a common Vision ensures greater buy-in and collaboration by appealing to shared aspirations.

Fostering collaboration by seeking active involvement and the support of all stakeholders.

II. Technical skills

Conducting Data Analysis is crucial in assessing the needs of students and in properly allocating the funds to serve the specific needs which will result in greater student achievement.

Facilitating Meetings is a daily skill necessary for any administrator who seeks to effectively communicate and seeks collaboration of all stakeholders.

Master Calendar knowledge is essential to proper curriculum implementation and curriculum improvement. Without a proper structure in place and an ongoing assessment of the programs the academic success of our students will suffer.

III. Conceptual skills (Select Three)

Ensuring a Positive School Culture – Facilitates the set-up of committees for assessing the current school culture and for ensuring a positive school culture is maintained— which embraces all its members.
Creating School Vision – Facilitates the creation of a school vision which embraces all its members and enlists all members to collaborate and participate.
Implementing a School Safety Plan – Communicates on a regular basis with a school safety committee to ensure there is a school safety plan and that it is implemented.
Retaining Teachers – Provides quality instructional coaches ; new teacher coordinator.
Improving Student achievement – Conducts school wide data analysis.
Having Content/Pedagogy Knowledge – Conducts classroom observations with post observation debrief ; feedback.
Delivering Up-to-date Educational Research – Facilitates and approves professional growth through trainings and conferences.
Technology Innovation – Leads the way for technological innovation in the classroom and school campus. For example, communicating via a system by which the principal can send a live/or recorded visual message to each classroom.

List and describe 3 sources of conflict in an organization and tell what the supervisor can do to reduce each.
1)Structural conflict: lack of clear leadership roles defined
organization lacks ability to define roles and appoint duties to their roles, resulting in productivity being low
people do not know who to turn to for support, blame others when organization fails
a sense of lack of assuredness leads employees to not work at their best capability
what supervisors can do:
promote shared sense of responsibility by defining roles and duties
clearly state expectations
ask for constructive feedback to assess progress toward projects, are all involved feeling supported, have adequate resources

2) Interpersonal differences
-personal or stylistic differences between employees
-intolerance for diversity
-differences in values/purposes
-what supervisors can do:
-promote a positive, working climate
-remind stakeholders to stay focused on the goal
-promote collaboration and celebrate successes of staff

3) Lack of clear, consistent communication
-miscommunication keeps the organization from succeeding
-lack of open communication between employees and supervisors keep the organization from working forward toward the goal
-employees do not feel kept up-to-date with relevant information, expected to produce outcomes without proper notice
-overall climate shifts to frustration
-what supervisors can do:
-make themselves accessible at all times
-be willing to listen to all parties
let others to make suggestions to projects
-provide communication in paper, via emails, face-to-face, at weekly meetings
-be organized in presenting ideas and reasonable in stating expectations

Administrators are continuously faced with the task of making decisions with regards to issues, personnel problems, operational procedures, etc. Discuss the dynamics of the decision-making process.
Possible source to site: Dr. Clarke in the simulation class???

I. Introduction: One of the most important skills an administrator can have is the ability to quickly process information and make decisions.
A. On a daily basis, administrators must have the ability to make decisions in a split second.
B. At any given moment, a problem may arise with a student, a parent, or even a teacher that requires an administrator to make an important decision.
C. This decision is often made in a split second, but successful administrators are able to first identify a problem or issue, gather as much information on the issue, process the information into identified pros and cons and then make an action oriented decision.
II. The first step of the decision making process is to identify the issue.
A. In some cases, the issue may be public and obvious, such as a parent complaining to others in the middle of the hallway.
B. In other cases, the issue may be hidden and need to be uncovered by the administrator, such as a teacher who is struggling with lesson planning in the classroom.
C. Successful administrators are able to observe and note instances of problem and drill down to the root of the problem.
III. The next step in the decision making process is to be able to identify all areas of the problem.
A. Successful administrators gather as many perspectives and as much information on an issue as possible.
B. Gathering information and seeing the issue from other perspectives allows administrators to make judgments that are not steeped in bias.
C. Once the information is gathered, the administrator needs to cognitively process the information.
IV. The final step in the thinking process during decision making is for the administrator to weigh the options possible.
A. In some cases, this may mean doing something that is uncomfortable but necessary for legal or personnel reasons.
B. Successful administrators are principle driven, making decisions that weigh the options, yet are centered around students and student learning.
V. Finally, the decision making process leads to a conscious decision to either take action or purposefully not need to take action.
VI. At the end of some decisions, it may be necessary for the parties involved to evaluate the decision and the decision making process.
A. Successful administrators are able to learn from their previous mistakes and successes and reflect on how to improve.

Alternative schools are developing in many districts across the country. Give a definition of an alternative school tell why they have come into existence, how they are evaluated and speculate upon their future development either within or outside of the prevailing school system.
An example of an alternative school is a Charter School, a public school that has local governance. Charter schools are nonsectarian public schools of choice that operate with freedom from many of the regulations that apply to traditional public schools. Charter schools came into existence in order to provide students with adequate education.  Charter school organizations operate under a written contract with a local public district. Charter schools are regulated by the local school district in which they operate under. In Los Angeles Unified School District for example, charter schools are granted approval by the Board of education for a period of three to five years. They are held to higher standards than  regular public schools. Charter schools are open to any child who wishes to attend and enrollment is conducted by lottery. Charter school are here to stay.
It is commonly expressed opinion that the “image” of the public school has become “tarnished in recent years. (A.) List what you consider to be the three greatest causes of this decline in public esteem, and (B.) Briefly discuss what you, as a principal, would propose to reverse this trend and enhance the prestige of your community’s schools.
Possible sources to site: Constantino- Engaging All Families, Don Bagin ; Donald Gallagher- The School and Community Relations

I. Introduction: Three of the greatest causes of the decline of public school image
Pick 3
a. Low or declining Achievement / Test scores
b. Lack of Safety
c. Poor Facilities
d. Media –lack confidence in institution public education
II, III and IV
As a principal I would do (use 3) to enhance the prestige of the school.
In order to
a. Increase achievement/ test scores- introduce data driven programs and get by in from staff. Get parents involved in decision process/ educate/ communicate Use programs that get students excited about learning.
b. Improve Safety- Create committee to come up with safety plan, Partner with agencies that can provide resources and promote safety (ex. City attorney, local police dept) Involve community/ local business, neighborhood families can contribute to making area safer.
c. Improve Facilities- Organize group of community members (teachers, students, families) to look for funds to improve school (grants etc.) School policy that maintaining school priority (no graffiti, trash) when problems arise fixed right away.
d. Good media coverage- Begin building positive relationship with media, Give media information that highlights improvements Always be prepared to address media (know what you will say), get all pertinent information before speaking doubts about what to say talk to legal.
V. Conclusion
If these things are done (state 3) the school’s image can improve. This positive change will attract more community families back to the school. As the population grows the school can continue to bring new innovative programs that will help the school grow and enhance the image.

Identify and discuss in some detail six principles of an effective school community relations program.
Building better school/community relationships is vital to the success of our schools. We must understand the importance of public support. Reaching out to the community in their native language
1. Work with and through parents and families to support children’s learning and development.
2. Know the importance of establishing and maintaining a positive and collaborative relationships with families to promote academic, social, and emotional growth of children.
3. Foster relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community to support school learning and well being.
4. Provide a responsibive, community based support system for collective action among all educational and community agencies to address both the community quality of life issues and special needs.
5. Propegate communication between home and school that is regular, two-way, and
6. Develop educational partnership between schools and public and private providers, business and industry, civic and social service organizations
List and discuss what you to be the three most cogent arguments in favor of district-wide testing for minimum competencies’ and  (b) Why it is important?
1.      School accountability-Ensure that schools performing successfully. I
2.      Assist school board in figuring out new ways to provide students with more beneficial lessons and learning opportunities.
3.      Teacher accountability
Why is it important?
NCLB compliance (funding)
Competent workforce
Briefly discuss several of the most prominent arguments advanced (a) in support of collective bargaining for public employees and (b) in opposition to such bargaining.
Pros: Negotiates wages, working conditions, hours, leaves of absences, vacation time, protects against ill prepared administrators, an agreement between employer ; employee,

Cons: your beliefs aren’t align with that of the union (some teachers are willing to have furlough days, but union says not an option), dues to pay, a division is created between colleagues, time consuming if there is no agreement between district ; union, union represents even those who do not pay, “bad” tchrs are protected

*I could not find the book that we used in Dr. Gregory’s class but I do know that it mentioned advantages and disadvantages for collective bargaining-School Personnel Administration: A California Perspective by A. Townley, J. Schmieder, ; L. Wehmeyer

Arguments are frequently advanced that teacher tenure should be abolished now that teachers are protected by strong unions and collective bargaining agreements. Choose one side of this issue and draft a statement supporting your point of view.
Possible sources to site, Townley, School Personnel administrations
I Introduction- Choose Pro or Con
II, III, IV
Pro- do more details/ elaborate on bullet pts
1. job security
2. protects unwarranted dismissals
3. Selection process of teachers-helping families
4. Academic freedom
Cons
1. Incompetent or undesirable teachers may be retained
2. Difficult to supervise some teachers who know they have job security
3. Increased teacher turnover
4. Not protected by law in any other profession
5. Public questions the practice of tenure when incompetent teaches still have jobs.
6. Competent teachers don’t need protection by tenure.
Conclusion restates and emphasize point of view.
The current public clamor for “higher standards” has led numerous boards of education to consider mandating a “C” average for graduation fro high school.  The superintendent has asked principals to provide a report with pros and cons of such a move.  Discuss the point you will discuss with the superintendent.
Increasing expectations of students also increases the expectations of the teachers and the school.
Lower expectations and diminished standards will prevent students from succeeding and being motivated to do well.
While increased expectations may motivate some students, it may discourage others.
Does not take into consideration students with disabilities.
Fewer students will graduate.
Concerns:
A.)     Aides need be under the immediate supervision and direction of certificated personnel.
B.)     Union and certificated contracts state that aides are not to instruct the class but assist the instructor
C.)     Instructional aides and non-certificated lack training in district curriculum programs.
Steps to alleviate concerns:
According to the Education Code 88243, an instructional aide is”a person employed to assist classroom instructors and other faculty in the performance of their duties and in the supervision of students and instructional tasks which, in the judgment of the faculty to whom the instructional aide is assigned, may be performed by a person not qualified as a classroom instructor.”
The principal can take the following steps to alleviate concerns:
1.)  Place additional aides in the classroom
2.)  The principal will also consider the greatest benefit to students based on factors as class size, grade levels, student needs, subject matter and teacher workload.
3.)  Teachers will receive training in how to collaborate effectively with assistants and are expected to assign duties with a clear definition of his/her roles and responsibilities assisting the teacher in class
4.)  Aides will receive training in district curriculum and ongoing support and regular performance assessments.
5.)  These steps may encourage aides to pursue opportunities that lead to attainment of a teaching credential and enable them to increase their skills and experience in the classroom.
With the shortage of funds, some districts have started educational foundations where citizens of the community can donate tax-exempt gifts to the schools. State the arguments for or against such a foundation being started in the school district where you are the principal.
Pros: more resources will be coming into the school, increased community involvement, partnerships will be built with both public and private organizations, open two-way communication will be practiced, programs to help children with literacy or math will be available, shared vision among stakeholders, welcoming environment

Cons: low income areas will not benefit, those donating might feel that they are exempt from certain requirement or they might feel that they don’t have to “follow the rules” or that the “rules don’t apply to them”, who will be responsible for the donations or who will the contact person be at the site, members of the foundation might not agree with the vision of the school

School-based Management has been implemented by some major school districts and is being considered for implementation by other school districts. List three (3) disadvantages of school-based management.
School-based Management is a form of giving schools autonomy and personalized voice based on a school’s vision and mission. With this independence come potential pitfalls or disadvantages. Three disadvantages of school-based management is top-down leadership, lack of support from local district offices and outside agencies, and a narrow view of student achievement.
Although, School-based Management has the potential to influence and motivate all stakeholders to impact student achievement at a grand scale, this key step or skill may be overlooked when establishing this type of school reorganization. Top down reform is a major concern for many educators when school-wide mandates around curriculum, supervision, discipline, parent involvement, and culture exist. Without investment from key stakeholders, school-wide structure or procedures for whole school commitment, a school climate that is directed by school leaders governs the reform effort.
When schools are given majority control and independence, there is an effort of decentralization where school sites are left to make critical decisions and make important decisions with a lack of specific guidance from district leadership or other colleagues at other school sites. This may create difficulties in understanding the proper channels…
Districts provide student achievement data that is comprehensive and includes neighboring schools as a form to track growth and overall decision making. Schools that operate on their own lack a few of the resources to acquire such information; thereby making critical decision.
There are many advantages to School-based Management with regards to improving student achievement. With those advantages come disadvantages such as top-down leadership, lack of support from local district offices, and a narrow view of student achievement that may hinder a school from moving forward.
Legislation has recently been introduced in the California Legislature that would make a fine and/or imprisonment mandatory for any student assault on a teacher. Discuss the pros and cons of such a law.
-Source: LaMorte
Pros
-students are aware of consequences and sends clear message to students that if found guilty they could be convicted and sentenced to imprisonment or paying a fine
-if a minor, parents are held accountable
-sends strong message to school and local community that it is not tolerated
-courts must balance students’ constitutional rights against the duty of public school officials to maintain an appropriate environment for learning and safety

Cons
-students may think their assault is worth the fine, how do we apply value towards physical assaults/threats
-what is the support for the teacher…after the sentence does the student return to the classroom with the assaulted teacher?
-after the sentencing, what kind of corrective rehabilitation will be in place with the jail time or monetary sentence….what will be done to prevent this act from happening again?

When gang activity develops at a school, the principal must address the problem. The principal should collaborate with the students, staff, parents, police and community. A plan should be decided upon and executed. Finally, the principal should assess and celebrate the plan’s successfulness.
Two-way communication is very important. The school can inform its stakeholders and possibly receive information about gang activity. The principal should call an emergency meeting with the school staff and faculty to discuss the incidents. Individual students should also be called in to speak with a counselor about what is happening in their neighborhoods. Teachers can also discuss events with the students. Parents should be notified of gang activity by a phone blast and/or parent meeting. This may be alarming but it creates an avenue to discover information about the gang activity.
Information about the causes of the disruption and its participants can be forwarded to the school police or local police. The school can work with the police or create its own anti-gang plan. Ideas for preventing fights, graffiti, etc. include posters, graffiti clean-up, uniform enforcement, and counseling for affected students. There should also be anti-gang informational assemblies and consequences for on-campus gang activity. This plan could also involve contact with other schools in the area and community groups.
The plan that is created by the campus community should also include a timeline for assessment of success. After 3 months, for example, the principal could call the police department to see if gang activity has decreased. All aspects of the plan should be reviewed and adjusted. The school community should also be celebrated for its work with stickers or a fun assembly. Since gang activity will not dissipate over night, the principal must ensure this plan as an on-going effort to last for a few years.
As a site administrator you are asked by the superintendent to present the advantages and disadvantages of the school of choice proposal at a future Board of Education meeting. Provide the process you would follow to prepare and the report as requested by the superintendent.
I would research education journals and contact universities that have conducted research on school choice measures. I would interview, teachers, parents, students, and other stakeholders regarding the issue of school choice. The report would consist of data that shows which states have exercised the school choice option and its ramifications.
O’Neill cites the reasons people favor school choice:
* Choice offers a way out of a low performing school.
* Choice supports educational innovation because it supports alternatives to the traditional school day.
* School choice can match child and parent needs thus parents will be involved and more committed to the school.
There are also disadvantages, which O’Neill sites as:
* Schools of choice create inequities by taking the more desirable students.
* Students in schools of choice have fewer opportunities to learn from students of different backgrounds.
* School choice changes the focus from education for the public good to education for the private good. Education is no longer being seen as providing “some common experiences in common settings.” Will those without children in schools continue to support education in light of this change?
Implications:
We must pay attention to what is happening in charter schools, for the formation of charter schools sends a loud message that public schools are not meeting the needs of all of our students. We must examine what those needs are and how public schools can do a better job of meeting those needs. Public school educators must attend to this task before charter schools turn into vouchers for private schools.
O’Neil, J. (1996). New Options, Old Concerns.Educational Leadership, 54, 6-8.
Opponents to the measure argue that “choice” will lead to the abandonment of our public schools with many parents choosing private over public education. They further contend that education tax dollars belong to the State and should not be spent at the discretion of parents. The issue of the separation of church and state along with the argument that state funds should not be given to religious institutions also comes into play.
The opponents further question the quality of education in private schools which are not regulated by the State. Schools in which teachers may not be credentialed and curriculum varies from school to school. They believe that the implementation of a school voucher system on a large scale will take away crucial dollars from schools which are already in desperate need of funding. They further caution that although the evidence of the use of school vouchers is promising, it is also limited. Institution of a statewide or nationwide voucher system would not be prudent since it is too early to tell if the voucher system will be successful on such a large scale.
http://www.essortment.com/all/schoolvoucherd_rrmr.htm
The Board of Education has asked that the district revise and update the Student Discipline Policy. Discuss steps you, as the staff person in charge of this rewriting project, would take in the completion of this change.
*As the person in charge of the project to revise and update the Student Discipline Policy, my first priority would be to make sure I had all the key players involved. Representation from:
-General Ed Teachers
– Special Ed Teachers
– Certificated staff with expertise in Culturally Relevant and Responsive Education
-Classified Staff (especially yard supervisors)
– Administration (especially those who deal mostly with discipline: deans, A.P.s)
– Counselors
*My first step would be to brainstorm what is working and what is not working. Where are the holes in the current discipline plan? Can they be repaired or does the plan need to be completely restructured.
*The next step would be to observe student behavior in the affected areas or areas of concern.
– Classroom
-Playground
-cafeteria
-Hallways
-Lunch line
-Arrival
-Dismissal
*Again, we would need to brainstorm ideas on how to deal with the behavior of concern. Can we be proactive? Rearrange supervision? Have something for the children to do in the morning (i.e. walk the track)? Implement a specific procedure (i.e. drop and freeze at the recess bell)?
*Next, the staff would need to implement and evaluate the new policy/procedures; see what works and make adjustments as needed. The group would need to come back together after some time has passed and evaluate the progress of their plan.
*Lastly, the plan should be written up and presented to the Board.
Vandalism has become a significant problem in the district with several instances of damaged classrooms and significant financial losses sustained. Indicate some steps you as the principal of the district, might take in response to this problem.
Possible sources to site: Professor Gregory –Kouzes Posner Leadership the Challenge

I Introduction: Vandalism continues to plague our schools, that are unfortunately already on tight budgets. As a principal and leader of the school, I might not be able to stop vandalism from occurring, however there are measures that can be taken to protect school property and deal with individuals who damage it. First three steps I would take would be
Choose 3
a. Collaborate with local police, community, staff and students to deal with the problem
b. Develop procedures/ consequences related to student initiated vandalism at the school
c. Increase security

II Collaborate with local police, community, staff and students to deal with the problem
Partner with local police, request patrols of school during school and non-school hours,
Invite community members to participate in keeping neighborhood safe (Neighborhood watch), reporting crimes to local police,
Staff monitor hallways and directing students to class during school day, reporting incidents to administration immediately
Build school pride, assemblies, introduce anonymous tipping

III Develop procedures/ consequences related to student initiated vandalism at the school
Form committee, come up with action plan (define, compensation, actions taken against vandal) share with staff
Introduce procedures and consequences to families and students – assemblies, back to school night etc…
Enforce – students who vandalize are dealt with immediately- follow action plan

IV Increase security
Install security devices
Invite more volunteers (security) to be on campus – have them patrol areas identified as high crime areas,
Invite guest to discuss problem- assemblies that promote safety etc…

V Conclusion
As principal I must have something in place to deal with vandalism at the school I work in. Have (list 3 steps) this plan in place will help reduce the number of incidence of vandalism. With limited resources I can’t afford to waste money on repairing what vandals have destroyed.

A major question in curriculum is: “Who determines what we teach in the schools?” Identify and discuss what persons or groups determine the curriculum content in the schools today and from whom do they derive their authority?
*Federal (NCLB)
With the passage of NCLB in 90’s, came teacher hiring standards
*State Board of Education (SBE) is where the authority is derived from and who adopts the standards.
The State Board of Education (SBE) is the governing and policy-making body of the California Department of Education. The SBE sets K-12 education policy in the areas of standards, instructional materials, assessment, and accountability. The SBE adopts textbooks for grades K-8, adopts regulations to implement legislation, and has authority to grant waivers of the Education Code. The SBE has 11 members, appointed by the Governor.
*School Board (community & parents)
*District (teachers, grade level, and departments) purchases the standards based curriculum based on need;
* Classroom teachers -Then it is implemented and modified based on the needs of students.
*Courts and lawsuits
Outline the procedures you would follow in conducting an action research program to improve student learning in school: (a) list the specific steps to be accomplished and (b) briefly explain its implementation.
Phase I – Problem Identification:
Why do you want to do it?  Is it an important and practical problem, something worth your time and effort, something that could be beneficial to you, your students and others?
Is the problem stated clearly and in the form of a question?  Is it broad enough to allow for a range of insights and findings?  Is it narrow enough to be manageable within your timeframe and your daily work?
Phase II – Plan of Action
Will you develop and implement a new strategy or approach to address your question?  If so, what will it be?
Implement the instructional practices consistently
Implement the instructional practices as they were designed to be implemented
Monitor student results
Will you focus your study on existing practices?  If so, which particular ones?
What is an appropriate timeline for what you are trying to accomplish?

Phase III – Data Collection
What types of data should you try to collect in order to answer your question?
How will you ensure that you have multiple perspectives?
What resources exist and what information from others might be useful in helping you to frame your question, decide on types of data to collect, or to help you in interpreting your findings?
Phase IV – Analysis of Data
What can you learn from the data?  What patterns, insights, and new understandings can you find?
What meaning do these patterns, insights, and new understandings have for your practice? for your students?
Phase V – Plan for Future Action
What will you do differently in your classroom as a result of this study?
What might you recommend to others?
How will you write about what you have learned so that the findings will be useful to you and to others?

Many schools face sanctions from No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Discuss two components of this program and how an administrator might respond in affecting change.
-NCLB: reauthorized a number of federal programs aiming to improve the performance of U.S. primary and secondary schools by increasing the standards of accountability for states, school districts and schools, as well as providing parents more flexibility in choosing which schools their children will attend. Additionally, it promoted an increased focus on reading and reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965 (ESEA)

-key components: standards, assessments, accountability, and teacher quality

component 1: Standards
– according to information from the Department of Education, states are required to have assessments that align with their standards.
-administrators need to make sure teachers are providing standards-based instructions with all the curriculum
-schools should provide parents with the standards their children are expected to learn throughout the course of the school year
-students should be given objectives that outline the standard in which they are engaged in during the lesson
-annual assessments are based on the grade level standards

component 2: teacher quality
-teachers must be “highly qualified” to teach core academic subjects
-principals must implement effective professional development practices in order to better support teachers in their teaching practices-areas included are math, science, and reading
-consistent, on-going, effective assessments of staff is crucial
-administrators need to be available to support staff with various concerns/issues
-to ensure quality, all teachers should be provided with mentors/partners to effectively promote collaboration and staff support
-practice effective interviewing practices to ensure the hiring of true, highly qualified candidates

The increase in required courses mandated by changes in the state law and college entrance requirements have seriously decreased the opportunity for students to enroll in elective courses. Cite several arguments for and several arguments against the increase in required courses.
Possible sources to site:
Many state laws and college entrance requirements have impeded districts from enrolling students in elective courses

Several arguments for…
Additional AP courses for advanced grade levels
Equitable opportunities for CST/College entrance exams

Several arguments against…
Students lack of a “well rounded” education
Cuts in programs will create wider gap for minorities and disadvantaged students…students are already at a disadvantage with math and literacy levels behind in grade level…a few electives provide reasons for students to attend school in addition to overall instructional program

Name and discuss three forces/agencies, external to the local schools that are currently contributing to the initiation of curriculum change in California.
An initiation of curriculum change has a major impact on student achievement. In California, three forces/agencies to the local school that are currently contributing to this initiation are the state legislature, No Child Left Behind Act, and scripted curriculum such as High Point and Developing Readers and Writers Curriculum (DRWC).
Serrano v. Priest had a major role in shifting financial control from local school districts to the state. Because of the financial shift, curriculum also became a part of the state’s control. Contrary to popular belief, local schools and school districts do not have control in changing or altering school-wide curriculum. The state, in following education codes and federal regulations, establishes curriculum by which all districts follow and implement. The districts will set parameters of accountability and will be responsible for full transition and implementation of particular curriculum.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 attempts to eliminate educational inequity by ensuring curriculum is standards based, accountability measures exist around personnel and teacher certification. As a result of this legislation, states receive federal money in order to establish resources that will meet the terms and guidelines of No Child Left Behind. Today, schools establish pacing plans that reflect units and objectives derived from state standards. In addition to teacher generated assessments, there are periodic assessments which serve as benchmarks and indicators of success and areas for growth in preparation for the California Standardized Test.
Scripted curriculum is a third force that contributes to the overall initiation of curriculum change in California. Teachers who teach ESL are not only responsible for moving their students so that they can be successful in their core English courses, but also acquire the basic skills in English. There is not much room when delivering lessons that are derived from scripted curriculum.
The state of California, through legislative mandated curriculum, No Child Left Behind Act and scripted programs imposes curricular accountability for all schools and act as three forces to local schools contributing to the imitation of curriculum change.
Discuss the role of the building principal in bringing about curriculum improvement.
Introduction: The role of the building principal in bringing about curriculum improvement is crucial to teacher growth and to student academic success. Curriculum improvement begins with:

First, establishing a professional development team comprised of lead teachers by departments and all administrators;

Secondly, the PD Team surveys the needs of the students, teachers and the needs of the overall school;

And lastly, the PD Team sets up accountability measures as well proving follow through and next steps for teachers, ensuring curriculum improvement takes place

What do you consider the three most critical curriculum issues facing educational leaders today? Discuss your number one issue and indicate how you believe the schools should respond to it.
1. Developing vision or goals. 2. Rethinking the program of studies 3. Committing to a learning-centered schedule
My number one issue is developing the same vision and goals amongst staff in regards to the curriculum. The leader must work with her or his staff in defining what the curriculum shall be for the individual school. All staff members must agree what curriculum to use and how to implement it in the classroom. The educational leader must motivate staff to consistently implement the curriculum which is standards driven. Source: John C. Daresh (Supervision as Proactive Leadership)
Discuss the arguments for and against national/federal standards
Randi Weingarten, the head of the American Federation of Teachers, has come out in favor of national education standards. She declared that “Abundant evidence suggests that common, rigorous standards lead to more students reaching higher levels of achievement.”  She decried “the uneven patchwork of academic standards for students” across America, and asked, “Should fate, as determined by a student’s Zip code, dictate how much algebra he or she is taught?”
For years many education reformers have argued for national education standards and tests.  They have warned against allowing the states to continue to craft their own yardsticks for academic achievement.  Regrettably, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) failed to do the former and permitted this latter practice to continue.
NCLB established a fantastically complex metric, adequate yearly progress (AYP), to measure schools’ academics.  Put crudely, AYP measures the annual growth in the percentage of a school’s students who score at or above the state standard for competency in a subject area.  Though well intended, this policy rewards perverse behavior.  States’ can set low academic standards and then progressively water down their tests’ rigor so that more and more kids pass them each year.
To create these standards, many have suggested that “a broad-based group — made up of educators, elected officials, community leaders, and experts in pedagogy and particular content — come together to take the best academic standards and make them available as a national model.

Here is a simple breakdown

The Pros and Cons of National Standards In recent years, there has been an ongoing debate in education circles about the value of having a national set of standards that all schools throughout the country would use. Here are the arguments in a nutshell, pro and con:
The Pros
National standards would raise the level of expectations for all. If all schools across the country had the same standards, all students would be expected to achieve at the same level, no matter what state they live in. If students in Mississippi were required to know the same things as students in New York, for example, they would be prepared to attend universities throughout the country.
National standards would assure that all American students meet international levels of achievement. We know that American students fall behind in math and science compared to their peers in other countries. With national standards, it would be clear what students need to know to compete internationally.
National standards would make it easier for students to adjust to a new school when they move from one state to another. In an increasingly mobile population, it would be easier for students who currently face differing standards and different tests in each state.
The Cons
Education has traditionally been a right of the states. The United States has a long history of “local control” of schools that would be hard to change. The federal government or a federal agency should not dictate education in each state.
National standards would create a one-size-fits-all framework. The needs within each state are different. National standards would not take into account the cultural and geographical diversity of our country.
National standards would discourage innovation and creativity in the classroom. Too much similarity could lead to tightly prescribed curriculum in every classroom.
What’s the Connection Between Standards and the No Child Left Behind Law? The drive to create state standards and tests was pushed in part by the passage of the No Child Left Behind federal law in 2002. The law requires each state to set standards for curriculum in reading, math and science. Students must be tested annually in reading, math and science in grades 3 through 8, and at least once in grades 10 through 12. All groups of students, including economically disadvantaged and special needs students, must show evidence of academic progress, otherwise the school gets penalized and parents have the right to choose another school or receive free tutoring.
Critics of the law say it did not go far enough because it allowed each state to set its own standards. This created a system where some states have tougher standards than others. States can make tests easier so that more students can meet proficiency standards. Critics argue that this is exactly what has happened in some cases.
Supporters of the law say that it has caused schools to pay significant attention to the lowest achieving students and to raising the bar for all students. Test scores, for the most part, are improving and students are learning.

A small group of parents and citizens has attacked two textbooks being used in a science course. Discuss the steps you would take to respond to this attack.
1. Set-up a meeting for those parents & citizens
State in the meeting that the curriculum is standard-based
Give data which supports continued use of textbook
Provide teacher testimonial for the use of the textbooks
2. Dear cohort, I am having difficulty in answering this question adequately…I will look into it further and get back to you ASAP. Please feel free to offer any suggestions. Thanks!!!
In uncertain times we need leaders with a positive, confident, can-do approach to life. -Kouzer & Posner
Modern schools are utilizing evaluation and self-evaluation to improve their instructional programs. A supervisor should consider evaluating himself/herself, the role of the supervisor and the school program. Any evaluation should begin with a checklist of items that are being evaluated. This will communicate what responsibilities, outcomes, etc. are expected. This will also ensure that the evaluation is used as a tool to improve programs and not for disciplinary action. It is best to give the checklist in advance during a pre-evaluation conference where expectations will be clarified.
In evaluating himself/herself, an administrator might consider a questionnaire to be filled out by his/her school community. This form should rate how well the administrator is fulfilling certain job duties using a numbered scale. There should also be a space for written recommendations. The results should be compiled and put on display. The administrator could use this data to uncover weaknesses and address them. The same questionnaire should be given again after a fair amount of time to measure change.
Evaluation of the role of the supervisor should begin with a list of job responsibilities. A survey could be employed to ask whether or not the responsibilities are beneficial to the school site. A space for written answers can be used to offer suggestions for needed duties. The results should be discussed with a district supervisor to determine adjustments.
The school’s educational program must also be evaluated for efficacy. Expectations as well as assessment plans for the program should be presented before the school year begins. They should be recapped, discussed, or amended during the school year during meetings with the school community. Formal evaluation could begin in the middle or late part of the year. This evaluation would include surveys and meetings to discuss the results and new plan of action. Time should be allotted to make changes and the program should be re-evaluated with another survey. These results should be compared to the previous results and posted in the school. Any evaluation plan should include written expectations, the formal evaluation, opportunities for two-way communication about the results, time for modifications and a re-assessment.
List several rather specific practices or activities of classroom teachers that tend to contribute to their teaching effectiveness. Discuss in detail any two of these practices, and explain why they are so effective.
Small Group and Cooperative Learning:
1 Establish heterogeneous groups.
2 Establish group size.
3 Designate group work areas.
4 Designate specific responsibilities to group members.
5 Provide clear directions, time constraints, rules, procedures.
6 Provide necessary materials.
7 Establish leader selection process.
8 Minimize exchanges of information between groups.
9 Watch for conflict.
10 Encourage and praise group support.
Direct Instruction
1. Specify clear lesson objectives
2. Teach directly to those objectives
3. Make learning as concrete and meaningful as possible
4. Provide relevant guided practice
5. Provide independent practice
6. Provide transfer practice activities
Other Strategies
Incorporate Thinking Maps
Encourage Active learning
Prompt feedback
Communicate high expectations with rubric
Move from simple to complex
Accommodate learning styles (Differentiated Instruction)
Indicate 3 reasons teachers fail to achieve maximum effectiveness in the classroom and the actions a supervisor may take to help teachers increase effectiveness in these areas.
Classroom management
Inadequate resources
Lack of planning
Too many students
Differing levels of students’ abilities
Not using data driven instruction
Not feeling inspired by job, boss or field
One of the major roles of a principal is “instructional leadership.” Describe 3 important aspects of this leadership.
Develop a vision
Public Relations
Shared decision making
Effective communication
Collaboration
Curriculum alignment
Delegation and trust (utilizing people’s strengths)
SERVE model (Modifying the curriculum to meet the needs of every child)
Discuss in detail two specific practices or activities of classroom teachers that contribute significantly to their teaching effectiveness and explain why they are so effective.
Practicing backwards planning is an effective teaching practice.
Direct Instruction
Background Knowledge
Assessments
Graphic Organizers-visual learners
Differentiated Instruction
Incorporating Technology
Cooperative Learning Groups
Peer Review
Discussion Time-Literacy Circles
Incorporate manipulatives
As a school principal you want to establish a peer coaching program at your school. Describe what the program might involve and how you would implement it.
Peer Coaching Program: I would have a peer coaching program at each grade level. Each grade level would participate in a lesson study on mathematics. The coaches would facilitate the meetings to inform teachers about teaching strategies that work in regards to a particular math California content standard. Teachers would first meet to learn about the objective of the lesson study and then would watch a coach and a teacher teach the lesson that integrates the strategies. After the lesson is over teachers would reflect and talk about what worked and how to implement the lesson in their classrooms. The follow up would involve teacher’s team teaching the lesson using the new strategies.
Six Standards
Six Standards:
1.      Engaging  and Supporting All Students in Learning
Teachers build on students’ prior knowledge, life experience, and interests to achieve learning goals for all students; use a variety of instructional strategies an resources that respond to students’ diverse needs.
2.      Creating and Maintaining Effective Environments for Student Learning
Teachers create physical environments that engage ALL students in purposeful learning activities, and encourage constructive interactions among students; maintain safe learning environments in which all students are treated fairly and respectfully as they assume responsibility for themselves and one another.
3.      Understanding and Organizing Subject Matter for Student Learning
Teachers exhibit strong working knowledge of subject matter and student development; organize curriculum facilitate students’ understanding of the central themes concepts, and skills in the subject area.
4.      Planning Instruction and Designing Learning Experiences for All Students
Teachers plan instruction that draws on and values students’ backgrounds, prior knowledge, and interests; establish challenging learning goals for all students based on student experiences, language, development and home and school expectations.
5.      Assessing Student Learning
Teachers establish and clearly communicate learning goals for all students; collect information about student performance from a variety of sources; involve all students in assessing their own learning; use information from a variety of ongoing assessments to plan and adjust learning opportunities that promote academic achievement and personal growth for ALL students.
6.      Developing as a Professional Educator
Teachers reflect on their teaching practice and actively engage in planning their professional development; establish professional learning goals, pursue opportunities to develop professional knowledge and skill, and participate in the extended professional community.
A principal may use the standards to guide improvement of instruction by teachers by:
1.      Providing professional development in
•       Supporting all students to use first and second language skills to achieve learning skills.
•       Choosing strategies that make the complexity and depth of subject matter understandable to all students including second language learners.
2.      Implementing and observing if teachers
•       Create a classroom environment that reflects and promotes student learning.
•       Involve all students in the development of classroom procedures and routines.
•       Model and promote fairness, equity, and respect in the classroom
3.      Implementing and observing if teachers
•       Identify and understand the key concepts and underlying themes and relationships in the subject area(s) being taught
•       Help student to relate subject matter concepts to previous lessons and their own lives
4.      Providing professional development in/ implementing and observing if teachers
•       Use knowledge about student’s lives and their families an communities to use in their planning of instruction.
•       Adjust their lesson plan to make content relevant and accessible to each student.
5.      Implementing and observing if teachers
•       Ensure that goals for learning are appropriate to student’s development, language acquisition, or other special needs.
•       Model assessment strategies for all students
6.      Providing teachers additional time to collaborate and opportunities to
•       Formulate professional development plans that are based on their reflection and analysis
•       Use professional literature, school district and other professional development opportunities to increase their understanding of teaching and learning.
Developmental Supervision of teachers calls for the use of different supervisory approaches by the supervisor. Describe three different approaches that might be used and the rationale for each.
Approach #1 Nondirective
1. Listening 2. Clarifying 3. Encouraging 4. Presenting
The supervisor sets very precise standards for teacher and then openly explains his or her expectations that those standards will be met.
Approach #2 Collaborative
1. Problem Solving 2. Negotiating 3. Demonstrating
Either the teacher or the supervisior may appropriately take the initiative to require a meeting to discuss concerns. The product of the supervisor-teacher meeting is an actively negotiated plan of action.
Approach #3 Directive
1. Directing 2. Standardizing 3. Reinforcing
The primary assumption that teachers are capable of initiating their own improvement activities by analyzing their own instruction. The supervisor acts as a facilitator helping teachers control their own improvement.
Source: Supervision as Proactive Leadership (John C. Daresh)
Discuss briefly what you would consider to be the five most critical areas of competence needed by today’s school principal and explain the reasons why each area is important.
Possible sources to site: Principle Centered Leadership –Covey
Supervision as Proactive Leadership –Daresh
Skills for Successful 21st Century School Leaders- Hoyle
School Personnel Administration Townley
The Principal as Curriculum Leader- Glatthorn

I Introduction- 5 most critical areas of competence needed in school principal
Good communication
Budget
Curriculum & Instruction
Special Education
Evaluation (Programs & Personnel)

II Good communication
a. Interpersonal skills Articulate a vision of learning, Build consensus and buy in
b. Community Relations- Engage community-get input work collaboratively
***Buy in gets stakeholders on board with the vision

Budget
a. Skills in policy and governance-knowledge of school mandates (superintendent/school board/ state) finance management
b. Develop, monitor school site budget
c. Proper decision making and accounting procedures
d. Knowledgeable of school expenditures (necessary equipment, maintenance of school etc…
***Money allocated correctly leads to school success

III Curriculum & Instruction
a. Design, evaluate and modify curriculum based on research, practice and policies
b. Knowledge of standards –best practices, professional development
c. Data driven decision making- provide /programs that benefit students
***Knowledge allows you to make decisions that increase student achievement

Special Education
a. Understand and implement federal, state and local special education requirements
b. Familiar with assessments, IEP and proper procedures
c. Ability to include and support these students
*** School compliance or school and district can be sued.

IV Evaluation (Programs & Personnel)
a. Effective evaluation of models and processes
b. Use data based decision making
c. Assist/ give opportunities to improve
***Must be able to evaluate the effectiveness and make changes accordingly
V Conclusion

List 5 competencies – these are the areas of competence required of an effective principal. With this in place school can increase student achievement and positive school environment.

You recently have been appointed principal in a new district. Describe the steps you would take to establish a school climate that encourages change and innovation on the part of the faculty and explain why each step is important.
Possible source to site: Collins “good to great”, Posner and Kouzes Five Practices of Exemplary Leaders, Dr. Gregory 650 Course.

I. There has been much studied about excellent leadership practices throughout the course of history.
A. Within education, the principal has the primary role of the school to build climate and trust among teachers and staff.
B. Within education reform, innovation and change are leading forces to improve education.
C. In their book, the five practices of exemplary leaders, Posner and Kouzes present a model for leaders to establish a strong culture and encourage opportunities for reform.
II. The first practice is model the way.
A. To model the way means to be leader who does what they say they will do when they say they will do it.
B. This is important because a leader needs to have credibility.
III. The second practice is to Inspire a shared vision.
A. In order to create a school climate that encourages change and innovation, people need to feel connected and that what they are working towards is on the same page as those around them.
IV. The third practice is to challenge the process.
A. Often times in education, reverting back to what is safe or “normal” creates instances of bad practices or worn-out ideas.
B. Allow others to feel safe challenging the process to create change.
V. The fourth practice of exemplary leaders is enable others to act
A. A leader can not do everything on their own.
B. Leaders must delegate and set up successful systems for having others step up to take leadership opportunities.

VI. The final practice of exemplary leaders is to encourage the heart.
A. Team members need to feel valued and trusted.
VII. These five practices will work to get a team invested in a leader, inspired by a vision, working towards change, and feeling trusted.

For many years many educators have advocated the elimination of small school districts and amalgamation, unification, etc. to form increasingly larger administrative units.  More recently the trend appears to have reversed, with the talk now largely in terms of decentralization.  Discuss the factors which tend to operate in favor of larger districts and those which appear to make decentralization desirable.
-Larger districts have more desirable revenues and therefore can hire more people to spread out the work force.  Additionally, larger districts often have the monies and the abilities to build or buy large property areas and buildings.  A larger district has a central office that handles the majority of human resources, personnel issues, hiring, firing, or staff relations.  In a larger district, the sheer amount of people allows for certain people to work in different areas and they are able to provide better support services for students such as social workers, psychologists.
-Small districts (or decentralization) is desirable because there is first and foremost the opportunity for local control of schools and decision making to happen on a much more micro level which research has shown greatly improves the outcome of student achievement.  For example, a smaller school has the ability to adopt a curriculum that is best suited for students.  In a smaller school, money allocation and distribution has more accountability and less buerarcracy.  In some cases, collective bargaining may actually be about what’s best for students and teachers and not about seniority and tenure.  There is an element of a cohesive community or environment that may lead to increased safety and security on campuses.  A smaller district in general is easier to manage.
What are steps necessary to establish a full inclusion program for special needs students at your school?
.      Determine the needs, restrictions, strengths and weaknesses of the students to be served from the IEP.
2.      Commitment and collaboration between teachers. There must be an agreement for all staff to work collaboratively in the Inclusion process and to develop a sense of “community” within the school environment.
3.      Determine what model best suites students and staff.
a.      ALEM Adaptive learning Environment Model (Wang) Highly Structured Model
b.      Team Teaching
c.      Circle of Inclusion –participatory model
4.      Facilities – Determine the physical needs of the facility, special limitations,
5.      Resources – personnel, curricular, instructional etc.
6.      Legal Compliance – IDEA, Rehabilitation ACT.
Discuss several major issues that should be considered in determining whether or not to move from a (K-6)-(7-9)-(10-12)-school configuration to a (K-5)-(6-8)-(9-12) organizational plan.
Introduction: When considering whether or not to move from a (K-6)-(7-9)-(10-12) school configuration to a (K-5)-(7-9)-(9-12) organizational plan we should consider the issues which are particular to the schools in mind. For example:

Are the feeding Elementary and Middle Schools over crowded?

Are school facilities (buildings) available to accommodate the move?

Consider the students’ physical growth and the level of maturity (of 6th graders and 9th graders) for safety reasons as well as for attaining greater academic growth.

College requirements begin in the 9th grade therefore the move of the 9th grade to high school offers more of a college readiness atmosphere than a middle school campus, thus having a greater chance of setting the path to college for 9th graders as soon as they begin their ninth grade academic curriculum.

Three compelling reasons for the decline in high school graduation rates:
1.  Insufficient funding (California Dropout Research Project)
2.  Growing population of English Language Learners (California Dropout Research Project)
3.  CA High School Exit Exam (Stanford University/UC Davis study)
Districts may employ the following to reverse the trend:
A)  Demand a budget increase from the state
B)  Decrease class size to address the specific needs of students especially English Language Learners who need to be reclassified by the time they leave elementary school.
Describe how you, as a principal, would promote maximum participation of the school staff in the decision making process within your school.
•       Create a collective vision statement (Kouzes and Posner)
•       Establish a decision-making team (Daresh)
•       Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to shared aspirations (Gregory)
•       Strengthen others by sharing power and discretion (Gregory)
•       Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust (Gregory)
•       Establish an open door policy
•       Practice consensus building by using surveys
•       Generate staff input
•       Embrace the views of staff especially if they differ from
The board has requested that several of the school principals in the district prepare position papers dealing with the duties and responsibilities of a principal. You have been given the topic: “The role of the principal in enhancing the instructional process.”
Possible Sources to Site: Dufor and Eaker, Professional Learning Communities, Posner and Kouzes “Five Practices of Exemplary Leaders” Professor Garcia, Curriculum and Supervision of Instruction.

I. Historically, the role of the principal in schools has been as an operational and personnel manager.
A. With the current state of schools and the need for higher level of accountability and reform, school models are changing to a principal who is an instructional leader within the school.
II. The principal has the primary responsibility of enhancing the instructional process.
A. The first major role is to determine the needs and fit of teachers for the school; strong hiring must be the top priority to build a strong school and promote a culture of high level instruction.
B. The next major role is to identify instructional goals for the school and to provide support to teachers for implementing these goals.
C. A principal has the responsibility of setting up systems of support for teachers through coaches, professional development, and mentoring.
III. There are multiple models for supporting curriculum implementation and supervision.
A. A common thread in all of the models is a principal who is constantly in classrooms and is aware of what is going on to make strong decisions based on what is best for students.

One of the signs of a good leader is his/her willingness to delegate administrative
authority and responsibility. Describe four criteria that you, as a school principal,
would employ in determining what should and what should not be delegated.
In order to ascertain what should and should not be delegated, I would ask myself the following 5 questions:
Is there someone else who has (or can be given) the necessary information or expertise to complete the task? Essentially is this a task that someone else can do, or is it critical that I do it myself?

Does the task provide an opportunity to grow and develop another person’s skills?

Is this a task that will recur, in a similar form, in the future?

Do I have enough time to delegate the job effectively? Time must be available for adequate training, for questions and answers, for opportunities to check progress, and for rework if that is necessary.

Is this a task that I should delegate? Tasks critical for long-term success (for example, recruiting the right people for your team) genuinely do need your attention.
If most of the answers to these questions are yes, then the task can most likely be delegated, but professional discretion is also critical.

Articulation Plan
Set up an appointment for the 5th grade level Chair and the 6th grade level chair to meet and discuss the academic level that the 5th grades students are on, so that the 6th grade teachers are aware and can prepare. Also, plan a day or 2, when the 6th grade teachers can go into the classrooms at the Elementary school and observe the students and the curriculum that the students are learning.
Select a day for the elementary students to visit the middle school campus. This is the day that will be used to showcase the middle school’s activities and classrooms. Students will tour the campus, be allowed to enter the 6th grade classrooms while they are in session, eat in the cafeteria and visit the library and locker rooms.
IDEA (Previously Public Law 94-142) continues to have a tremendous impact on public education. Discuss four of the major features of this bill.
In 1975, Congress passed Public Law 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act), now codified as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all children with disabilities. The state plans must be consistent with the federal statute, Title 20 United States Code Section 1400 et.seq.
Four Purposes of PL 94-142
“to assure that all children with disabilities have available to them…a free appropriate public education which emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs”
“to assure that the rights of children with disabilities and their parents…are protected”
“to assist States and localities to provide for the education of all children with disabilities”
“to assess and assure the effectiveness of efforts to educate all children with disabilities”
For children 6 to 17, the law specifies that states and local school districts must:
Make every reasonable effort to locate handicapped children and give first priority to the most severely disabled.
Evaluate the learning needs of each child, in consultation with parents and special education advisors, and develop and individual education program to meet these needs
Place these children in the least restricted environment as possible
Periodically evaluate the child’s progress and make changes as needed
Assume that you have been recently appointed principal of a new school. Describe how you would proceed in establishing an effective school-community relations program in your school.
In Diverse Partnerships for Student Success, Decker, Decker, and Brown provided a list of quality indicators for an effective program as it relates to establishing a relationship between the school and the community (pages 118-121).
1. Distribute information regarding cultural, recreational, academic, health, social, and other resources that serve families within the community
2. Develop partnerships with local business & service groups to advance student learning & assist schools & families.
3. Encourage employers to adopt policies & practices that promote & support adult participation in children’s education.
4. Foster student participation in community service
5. Involve community members in school volunteer programs
6. Disseminate information to the school community, including those without school-age children, regarding school programs & performance
7. Collaborate with community agencies to provide family support services & adult learning opportunities, enabling families to more fully participate in activities that support education
8. Inform staff members of the resources available in the community & strategies for utilizing those resources
The following is table 6.3 found in the book that provides some program examples.

Meeting Basic Needs
Developing Openness & 2-way Communication
Supporting Learning in Home & the Community
Participating in Voluntary & Advisory Roles
Building Collaboration & Partnerships
Participating in Governance
Program
*nutrition programs
*parenting education
*home-school liaison
*welcoming school environment
*parent, student, teacher conferences
*school newsletter
*home visits
*surveys
*message board of sch. Events
*newspaper column
*family literacy nights
*assignments to encourage family involvement
*learning contracts among parents, student, & tchr
*summer/holiday learning projects
*attending/assisting in school events
*fundraising
*room for volunteers/parents
*guest speaker
*tutoring students
*leading clubs
*parent centers
*providing advise on sch. issues/program
*school council, parent council
*financial & “in kind” contributions
*business partnerships/ sponsorships
*in-school daycare
*early intervention
*preschool
*shared facilities
*community service work

*planning, problem solving
*making decisions about budget, program adaptations, priorities, & staffing
*program assessment
*shared management
*partner ships with org./agencies

One of the recognized responsibilities of a school principal is that of providing an orientation program for new teachers to his/her school.  Discuss what components go into the development of a quality orientation program.
1.       A session on the school’s mission and vision to align, including the school year goals.
2.      Understanding the culture of the school.
3.      Setting clear expectation for both academic and behavior management in classrooms.
4.      A course on ethic and employee relations.
5.      A session that describes school policies.
6.      Establishing the channels of communication.
7.      A session on school operations.
Much has been written about mission statements of organizations, and you have learned the importance of a “shared vision” for your school. As the new principal of your school, present how you would develop such a statement and what you would need to do to ensure that it relates to the shared vision.
Schools are likely to be more successful in achieving in-depth learning when leaders work with staff and the community to build a collective educational vision that is clear, compelling, and connected to teaching and learning. This collective vision helps focus attention on what is important, motivates staff and students, and increases the sense of shared responsibility for student learning.
Schools are complex places, and teaching is a difficult and challenging job. Many schools do not have a clear and shared sense of purpose focused on student learning. Yet, without it, programs become fragmented, teachers lose motivation, and improvement efforts fail. Without a clear notion of what is important, work can become dissipated and undirected. Without a clear sense of direction, planning and decision making about programs, curricula, and instruction can remain uncoordinated.
Schools with educational missions give educators stronger motivation and provide parents with a clearer picture of what the school values. A clear vision and a common mission that identify the kind of learning to be achieved can help keep the school and the efforts of its staff and students on target.
School leaders should develop a clear, educationally focused vision and a well-defined mission statement, collaborating with school staff and community members to agree on the type of learning, beliefs, and goals that are important. A vision means an image of what the school can and should become. It is deeply embedded in values, hopes, and dreams. A mission statement is more specific and often defines what the school is trying to accomplish and for whom. It can be developed from the vision itself. Goals and objectives are still more specific and concrete, are derived from the vision, and can be used to focus change and improvement efforts.
Leaders should help develop a mission that is centered on student learning. The school mission should concentrate on key areas of high- quality student learning. But it also can concentrate on establishing a professional work environment that supports collegiality, improvement and profession growth, and an understanding of the importance of diversity
The school’s vision also can incorporate values and goals related to equity and justice, respect and appreciation for multiculturalism and diversity, and concern for the academic success of all students. These views of the school determine how people spend their time, what problems they solve, and how resources are distributed. Moreover, a clear understanding of the school’s vision and mission statement may lead to greater parent and community support. Thus, having a clearly defined and communicated vision supports active improvement and accomplishment.
In current contract negotiations, the Teachers’ union has expressed its desire that teachers have a greater role in the decision making at their individual schools. The school board is split on this issue and has requested input from the principals in the district. As a principal, describe four guidelines that you feel should be included in any policy that the board might submit for negotiation.
Four guidelines that I feel should be included in any policy are:
1. All decisions with teacher input should be made with students’ best interests in mind. If the decision is not what’s best for students, then it should not be on the table.
2. Decisions with teacher input cannot be solely made by the certificated teacher population. Two other constituent groups must be involved (i.e. administration, classified staff, non-classroom certificated staff such as counselors, community members such as parents).
3. Any decisions that have to do with student or staff safety must have final approval by the principal.
4. Staff members who are participating in school site decision making committees must be elected by a majority of union staff members.
You have been appointed principal of a new school in the district. At least half the staff will be new to the district. Describe what steps you would take to insure a climate that would permit and encourage innovation on the part of the staff as individuals and as a staff.
I. There has been much studied about excellent leadership practices throughout the course of history.
A. Within education, the principal has the primary role of the school to build climate and trust among teachers and staff.
B. Within education reform, innovation and change are leading forces to improve education.
C. In their book, the five practices of exemplary leaders, Posner and Kouzes present a model for leaders to establish a strong culture and encourage opportunities for reform.
II. The first practice is model the way.
A. To model the way means to be leader who does what they say they will do when they say they will do it.
B. This is important because a leader needs to have credibility.
III. The second practice is to Inspire a shared vision.
A. In order to create a school climate that encourages change and innovation, people need to feel connected and that what they are working towards is on the same page as those around them.
IV. The third practice is to challenge the process.
A. Often times in education, reverting back to what is safe or “normal” creates instances of bad practices or worn-out ideas.
B. Allow others to feel safe challenging the process to create change.
V. The fourth practice of exemplary leaders is enable others to act
A. A leader can not do everything on their own.
B. Leaders must delegate and set up successful systems for having others step up to take leadership opportunities.

VI. The final practice of exemplary leaders is to encourage the heart.
A. Team members need to feel valued and trusted.
VII. These five practices will work to get a team invested in a leader, inspired by a vision, working towards change, and feeling trusted.

The editor of the local paper has called and requested that you prepare an article on the Role and Purpose of Alternative Schools at the Secondary Level. Prepare such an article.
A. The role of alternative secondary schools…
Are designed to meet a variety of needs including preventing students from dropping out of school, providing another educational option, serving as a disciplinary consequence, or providing academic/behavioral remediation.
Are primarily designed for high school age students, although many states have schools that are serving younger students.
Are accessed by students in a variety of ways ranging from student choice (usually with some specified parameters) to mandatory placement.
Often have criteria for enrollment (e.g., students may be admitted as a result of suspension or expulsion or they must meet some form of at-risk criteria).
Serve students for varying amounts of time (e.g., short- term placement and transition back to traditional school; long-term commitment through graduation).
Offer educational programs that typically include one or more of the following; an emphasis on individual instruction, a focus on basic academic skills, social services (e.g., counseling or social skills instruction), and/or community or work-based learning.
B. The purpose of alternative secondary schools:
Alternative education programs, both public school-based and community-based, offer students who are struggling or who have left school an opportunity to achieve in a new setting and use creative, individualized learning methods. While there are many different kinds of alternative schools and programs, they are often characterized by their flexible schedules, smaller student-teacher ratios, relevant and career-oriented themes, and innovative curricula. Alternative education can be invaluable in helping communities offer multiple pathways to success for all high school-aged students, including those who are not succeeding in a traditional public school environment.
The high school of which you are a principal will soon be visited by WASC. The local newspaper editor has called and indicated that she feels that the community knows very little about this undertaking and has requested that you prepare an article for publication which would explain the purpose and procedures of the accreditation.
WASC=Western Association of Schools and Colleges. This commission works to accredit schools such that colleges recognized diplomas from the school. The school grants accreditation to schools based on the presumption that the primary goals are:
Certification to the public that the school is a trustworthy institution of learning.
The improvement of the school’s programs and operations to support student learning.
The school is substantially accomplishing its stated purposes and functions identified as appropriate for an institution of its type.
The school is meeting acceptable levels of quality in accordance with the WASC criteria adopted by the accrediting commission.

Procedures:
1. School completed documentation and application.
2. Initial accreditation for schools that meet criteria for full accreditation and have a history of a high quality program.
3. Candidacy is a status of affiliation indication that an institution has achieved initial recognition and is progressing toward, but does not yet assume, a accreditation.
4. Denial may result is the school does not fully meet WASC criteria.

WASC is looking for criteria in five categories. The categories are:

Organization
Standards-based student learning in:
Curriculum
Instruction
Assessment and Accountability
School culture and support for student personal and academic growth.

Essentially, WASC determines if a school is functioning correctly and providing students with a quality education.

-implement the 5 practices of exemplary leadership
1) Model the way
-find your voice: requires clarifying values and expressing yourself
-clarify your values: need values to guide actions and decisions, you can’t believe in the messenger if you don’t know what the messenger believes
-clarity of values will give you great confidence in finding your authentic, true voice
2) Inspire a shared visions
-discover a them and imagine possibilities
-listen deeply to others, discover and appeal to a common purpose, give life to the vision by communicating expressively (interpreting the vision)
3) Challenge the process
-leaders calculate the risk/failure and proceed
– search for opportunities: seize the initiative, make challenge meaningful innovate and create, look outward for fresh ideas
-experiment and take risks: learn from mistakes, promote psychological hardiness
-make it safe to experiment, give people choices, conduct pre and post assessments for every project
4) Enable others to act
-leadership is a team effort, need to foster collaboration and trust
-essentials of fostering collaboration: create a climate of trust, facilitate positive interdependence, support face-to-face interactions
-Covey: trust is glue of relationships, improves happiness and attitude
-trusting leaders are open to alternative viewpoints
-leaders must foster a sense of mutual benefit: tasks are structured so each person makes a contribution to the end product/result
-strengthen others: ensure self leadership, provide choice, develop competence and confidence, foster accountability
5) Encourage the heart
-accomplish through recognizing contributions: focus on clear standards, expect the best, pay attention; celebrating the values and victories: create a spirit of community, tell a story, set the example
-examples at schools: set up bragging board, schedule celebrations, create a commemorative award honoring exemplary actions
Capital Outlay
Amounts paid for the acquisition of fixed assets or additions to fixed assets.

Fixed assets encompass land or existing building; improvements of grounds; construction, addition to, or remodeling of buildings; and initial purchases of or additions to equipment

COLA
Cost of Living Adjustment

An increase in funding for revenue limits or categorical programs.
Current law ties COLAs to various indices of inflation, although different amounts are appropriated in some years

Education Code
The body of law that regulates education in California.
Additional regulations are contained in the California Administrative Code, Title 5; government Code; and general statues
Employee Benefits
Amounts paid by the LEA(Local Educational Agency) on behalf of employees
Encroachment
The expenditure of a school district’s general purpose funds for special programs, such as special ed and transportation.

Encroachment occurs in most districts that provide services for handicapped children, student food services and student transportation

Encumbrances
Obligations in the form of purchase orders, contract, salaries, and other commitments chargeable to an appropriation and for which a part of the appropriation is reserved
Equalization
Funds allocated by the legislature to raise districts with lower revenue limits toward the statewide average
Three major column items

The three major line items on the budget

Column items:
Restricted, unrestricted, combined

Line items:
Revenue, expenditures, ending balance

Oswalt and AB2756 list items that indicate a district in fiscal trouble
Governance crisis
absence of communication to educational comm.
lack of interagency cooperation
failure to recognize year to year trends
flawed avg daily attendance projections
failure to maintain reserves
insufficient long term bargaining effects
flawed multiyear projections
inaccurate revenue/expenditure estimates
Poor cash flow analysis
Bargaining agreements beyond state COLA
No integration of position control w/ payroll
Limited access to timely personnel, payroll, and budget control reports
Escalating general fund encroachment
Lack of regular monitoring of categorical programs
Other indications of financial trouble for a district
Inadequate beginning and ending balances
Administrative turnover
Enrollment decline
Three factors affecting staff costs
Number of employees needed
Cost of Salaries
Cost of Benefits

85% of district budget is spent on personnel salaries and benefits

Problem with declining enrollment
Declining enrollment gives a district:
less revenue
less students
less money
but still same expenditures
Five practices in budgeting that will get a district in trouble
Ineffective estimations of ending balances (E)
Ineffective budget developments (B)
Ineffective budget monitoring and reporting (M)
Ineffective attendance accounts (A)
Ineffective personnel practices (P)
Important State Budget dates
June 15th – deadline for legislature to adopt budget
Important District Budget States
March 15th – Layoff date
October 31st – first interim financial report
-positive – qualified – negative
January 31st – If a district receives a qualified or negative certification they resubmit budget for second interim financial report
July 1st – district holds public hearing on district budget
Most significant factor in determining the per pupil cost of education
Student –teacher ratio (class size)
Benefits districts are required to pay for employees
Workers compensation
and
Retirement
Expenditures
The cost of goods delivered or services rendered, whether paid or unpaid, including expenses, provision for debt retirement not reported as a liability of the fund from which retired, and capital outlay.
FCMAT
Fiscal Crisis management Assistance Team—A committee formed within the California Department of Education to review and redesign financial reporting forms for all school districts. The FCMAT accounting system was required of all districts and county offices of education as of the 1988-89 school year.
Fiscal Year
A period of one year, the beginning and ending dates of which are fixed by statue. In California, the fiscal year beginning on July 1 and ending on June 30.
Fixed Assets
Assets of a permanent character having continuing value; eg, land, buildings, machinery, furniture and equipment
Gann Spending Limit
A ceiling, or limit, on each year’s appropriation of tax dollars by the state, cities, countries, school districts and special districts. Districts are permitted to increase budgets equal to inflation—that is, equal to the change in the Consumer Price Index or per capita personal income, whichever is smaller—or change in the district’s ADA. Proposition 111, adopted in June 1990, amended the Gann inflation factor to equate only to the change in per capita personal income.
General Fund
The fund used to finance the ordinary operations of LEA. It is available for any legally authorized purpose.
Proposition 13
An initiative amendment passed in 1978 adding Article XIII A to the California Constitution. Tax rates on secured property are restricted to a maximum of 1% of the assessed value (full cash value) and annual property tax increases to 2%. Any new taxes must be approved by 2/3 of the voters. A consequence of this was that all taxes now went through Sacramento where they now took their cut and send the rest to the school districts, counties, and cities.
Proposition 39
Lowered the required vote for passage of General Obligation Bonds from 2/3 to 55%.
Proposition 98
This proposition was narrowly passes in 1988 and it guarantees a minimum funding level for schools. It also guaranteed payment to K-14 education of 50% of the excess when state tax revenues exceed the Gann spending limit for two consecutive years, and the remaining 50% is rebated to taxpayers. With this proposition schools were now held accountable with Annual School Accountability Report Cards to hold school accountable for dollars spent by local school boards. Has 3 tests—Test 2 is generally used, Test 3 used in poor economic times, Test 1 used in good times.
Proposition 111
Reduces the minimum funding guarantee in a year of low revenue. Formula for recalculating the cost-of-living element for when the economy is poor. This prop crated Test 3 of Prop 98.
Categorical Aid
Moneys that come from the state and federal governments for specific programs like Titles I-VI.
Title I- Poverty
Title II- Teacher improvement (PD)
Title III- ELL
Title IV- 21st Century School (TUPE)
Title V- Innovative Programs
Title VI- Assessment Funding
Governor Davis’s Plan for Education
In his State of the State Address Governor Davis stated that education was his “first, second and third priority.” During his term, he continued to fund Class Size Reduction. He set aside $41 million for districts to use PAR funds to improve the teachings of veteran teachers. He sponsored the Public Schools Accountability Act which was designed to track and compared a school’s performance over a period of time through the use of standardized tests. He proposed and legislature approved, a mandatory high school exit exam in the areas of Math and Language Arts (CAHSEE).
WillIam’s Case
2000 law suit charged that the state had failed to give thousands of children the basic tools necessary for their education. This basically says that funding was insufficient. Support for low performing schools. More accountability for providing basic supplies and facilities and maintenance. Made schools responsible for text books, facilities and qualified teachers. Cannot ask families for money.
Factors in creating enrollment growth in California
1950’s baby boom
Immigration
Migration from other states
Number of school districts in CA
1,000
Average amount CA spends per student (ADA)
$8,000
Six elements (fields) are incorporated in account codes
Fund/Account Group—identifies specific activities or defines objectives of the district. Examples: general fund, adult ed fund and transportation fund.
Resource—records revenues that require special accounting or reporting procedures or that have legal restrictions as to how the funds may be used. Examples: federal programs, lottery funds and state building funds
Project Year—tracks projects that span more than one fiscal year. Includes federal grants. Examples: bilingual grants
Goal—tracks income and expenditures by the district’s instructional goals. Examples: regular classes, classes for gifted students, drivers training and vocational education.
Function/Activity—tracks income and expenditures for services performed to accomplish one or more objectives in the goal field. Examples: transporting students to school in order to educate them, feed them and provide health services.
Object—tracks expenditures by the service or commodity. Example: salaries, benefits, books, supplies, services
Restricted Funds
Monies whose use is restricted by legal requirements or be a donor. These funds can only be spent for a specific purpose or program. Funds received in excess of the expenditures in any one year must be carried over to the next year for that program or returned to the donor (state or other source of funds).
Revenue Limit
The specific amount of state and local taxes a school district may receive per pupil for its general education program. Annual increases are determined by the legislature. Categorical aid is allocated in addition to the revenue limit.
Second Period Attendance/P-2
The period of time from July 1 through the last full school month ending on or before April 15. Revenue limit sources are based on ADA generated during this period.
Senate Bill 813
Education reform legislation approved by the legislature and signed by the governor in 1983. This legislature contained a series of “reforms” in funding calculations, as well as in programs. Longer day, longer year, mentor teachers, and beginning teacher salary adjustment are a few of the programs implemented by SB813.
Serrano V. Priest
A California Supreme Court decision that declared the system of financing schools unconstitutional because it violated the equal protection clause of the state’s constitution. The court said that by 1980 the relative effort, or tax rate, required of taxpayers for local schools must be nearly the same throughout the state and that differences in annual per-pupil expenditures due to local wealth must be less than $100.00. The impact of Proposition 13 settled the taxpayer equity provision.
STRS
State Teachers’ Retirement System. A state retirement system for teachers and other certificated employees. State law requires certificated employees, school districts, and the state to contribute to this retirement system.
Unencumbered Balance
That portion of an appropriation or allotment not yet expended or obligated.
The eleven (11) major areas of responsibility of a school district’s Chief Business Official (CBO)
Strategic & Financial Planning
Information Technology
Collective Bargaining
Fiscal Accounting, reports to Board of Directors, audits
Payroll
Purchasing and warehouse
Insurance
Facilities
M & O
Transportation
Food Service
What operational expenses must school business officials consider in estimating expenditures for the next budget year?
Salaries
Supplies/materials
Equipment
How does a school district CBO differ from a private business CFO?
Profits vs student achievement
What are major sources of information that must be reviewed in order to determine how much money a district will get (REVENUE) the following year?
Enrollment projections
ADA projections
COLA
Categorical funds
Lottery
All district revenues are placed in which account?
8000 series
The object code categories which comprise the largest expenditures in most school districts’ budgets are
5000 series (contracted services, including utilities)
Most districts spend at least the following percentage of their budget on personnel costs
85%
Revenue limit income
makes up most of the district’s general fund
is mostly unrestricted
is the amount of money a district may receive for general purposes
Among the advantages of Zero-Based Budgeting
annual evaluation of program priorities
Incremental or historical budgeting means
The starting point is the prior year budget
Zero-Based Budgeting
Budget starts from scratch
Program Based Budgeting (PBB)
Budget based on goals; complicated budgeting system
Site Based Budgeting
Budgeting that begins at a school site
Four major types of classifications in districts budgets
Governmental funds, proprietary funds, fiduciary funds and account groups
3 major types of school district expenditures
Operating, retirement of debt and capital outlay
3 main operational expenditures
Salaries, supplies and equipment
Ideal budget document contains a combination of numbers and text that contain 6 elements:
•Policies related to finances
•Goals for programs
•Assumptions used to develop budget
•Comparison
•Projections for future with calendar
•Easily assessable for community
All school districts have 8 state requirements
Meet budget deadline
Estimate income and expenditures before state budget
Balance budgets
Certify twice a year financial status
Report ADA twice
Use state-mandated accounting classifications and report forms
Arrange independent annual audit
Invite public comment
Account Code
The major codes used in school district budgets
Each code stands for what programs and activities are included in the code
1000-8000
Account Codes
1000- Certificated
2000- Classified
3000- Employee Benefits
4000- Books/ Supplies
5000- Services
6000- Equipment
7000- Other
8000- Revenue
ADA- attendance
Average Daily attendance- amount per pupil per day ($120)

Most amount of revenue for a school- less students, less ADA, less revenue

SIP
School Improvement Plan
Money granted by the state to selected schools to carry out a plan developed by school site council for improvement of the school’s program.
Assembly Bill 1200
Bill passed by legislation and approved by governor in 1991
Was passed to prevent schools from barrowing loans and from banks
It changed previous budget timelines
It imposed greater financial responsibility for school districts
*major intent is to impose greater fiscal accountability controls on school ditricts
Assessed Valuation
The value of land, homes, or businesses set by the county assessor for property tax purposes. Assessed value is either the appraisal value or any newly constructed or purchased property or the value on March 1, 1975, of continuously owned property, plus annual increase. This increase is tied to the California Consumer Price Index, but may not exceed 2% each year.
Block Grant
A lump sum allocation of special purpose funds in which two or more special purpose or categorical funds are lumped together for distribution to the state or LEA (local educational agency)
Current Challenges for CA Education
Facilities
ELL
SPED
Financial state of the state- budget
Student diversity
Poverty Free Reduced Lunch
Overcrowding increased population
Finding enough qualified staff
4 Groups of students that represent the highest increases in CA’s enrollment
ELL/ Immigrants
Low Income
Minority Groups
SPED
These groups impact school budget because they require additional funds and therefore encroach on the general fund
Ways in which teacher recruitment has changed in the past few years
Incentives on pay to teach at low performing schools
Loans on homes
Tax breaks
Recruitment fairs
ADA and October Enrollment
ADA- average daily attendance- which is the actual number of students who come to school
The October Enrollment Figure is the number of students enrolled in the school.
The ADA is part of the Oct. Enrollment in that schools get funding based on how many students are present versus how many are enrolled. That is why Oct. Figure is always higher.
Percentage of ELL in CA public schools
25%

ELL is a special needs groups that does not receive majority support for funding

Most regressive tax towards the general population
Sales tax
Prop 227
Passed in 1998

Eliminated bilingual education

Vouchers
Parent Choice initiatives where parents can chose where they can go to school

Was defeated twice

STAR Program
SB 376
Requires all CA school districts to use a single standardized tests to assess each student in grade 2-11 each year
SB 1777
Passed on 1996

Funds approved by Gov. Wilson and legislature to lower class sizes

SB 813
Hughes/Hart Education Reform Act (1983-84)

First act after Serrano and Prop. 13 to “rehabilitate” education on CA
A way to improve Education in CA
-Higher Graduation requirements
-Increased beginning teachers salaries
-Longer school day/year
-Set standards

Prop 20
50% of money given by lottery has to directly to education materials.
Budget
A spending plan to accomplish instructional objectives
Average size districts in CA are required to set aside the following amount for economic uncertainties
3%
District Superintendent must be replaced
When the amount of a loan given to a district to keep it solvent exceeds a set threshold.
3 Types of Taxes
Income Tax
Sales Tax
Property Tax
4 Population of Highest Groups with impact on enrollment
African Americans
Hispanic
Pacific Islander
Asian

These groups impact budget because we have to teach ELL and teach how to assimilate to a new environment

Special Needs Groups
ELL
GATE
Low Scores
SPED
Prop 49
Provided funds for education outside of the school day

After School education and safety program

Source of Funding for Schools
State 66%
Local Property 22%
Federal 11%
Local Misc. 6.5%
Lottery 2%
Funding Distribution
Categorical General
-1/3 -2/3 based on ADA and revenue limit
-restricted SPED
ELL
GATE
(state & fed.)
School’s Finances are controlled by:
State legislature and governor
What % of students receive SPED Funds?
11%
Non K-12 programs that receive funding
Preschool
Adult Education
Safety Programs
Purpose of a District Budget Calendar
1. Roadmap to meet legal requirements
2. Create a base plan for the district
Position Control
Matches available positions with $ the district has

Coordinates and authorized positions that align with district policies

Major Factors that Drives
Revenue= enrollment
Expenditure= class size
3 Types of Taxes
Proportional

Progressive –state income tax

Regressive-sales tax –same amount for everyone

Consumption Tax
Taxes based on spending income

A tax on goods

17% of US revenue is consumption tax
Pos: can raise a lot of $ in a short amount of time
Neg: it is a regressive tax

6 sources of Information to determine revenue
1. Enrollment Projections
2. Attendance Calculations
3. COLA
4. Lottery
5. Categorical Revenue
6. SPED Income
Other Sources of Local Income
Sale and Lease of Property
Largest Expenditure Codes
1000, 2000, 3000
3 major Operation expenses
1. Books/ supplies
2. Services
3. Capital Outlay
A budget is
the best way to control expenditures
A spending plan to accomplish instructional objectives
A requirement used to make reports on categorical programs
Allocated by the state based on ADA
The Major intent of AB1200 was to
Impose greater fiscal accountability controls on school districts
Give more control to the state for budgeting of school districts revenues
Form a committee to redesign the accounting system of school districts
Change the budget calendar to a dual adoption process
Average size districts in California (ADA 1,001-30,000) are required to set aside the following amount for economic uncertainties
5%
3%
10%
1%
What must a district do on both of these dates- October 31 and January 31?
Establish enrollment count dates for ADA accounting
Set aside a specified amount for economic uncertainties
Change the budget adoption process and timelines
Submit an interim financial report to the county
Which of the following is not a primary factor used to estimate how much a district will need to plan for expenditures for the following year’s budget?
Personnel salaries and benefits
Programs needed
The amount of lottery money available
Fixed costs such as utilities
What are major sources of information that must be reviewed in order to determine how much money a district will get (REVENUE) the following year?
Enrollment projections, ADA projections, COLA, categorical funds, lottery
Enrollment projections, ADA projections, truancy, new programs desired
Enrollment projections, demographic changes, family structures, state economy
ADA projections, the amount of COLA, cash flow problems, business partnerships
Which of the following has not been a factor in creating enrollment growth in California?
1950’s baby boom
The length of the California School Year
Immigrants coming in
Migration from other states
The number of school districts in California is about
5000
2000
1000
500
The average annual amount California spends per student (per ADA) is about
The average annual amount California spends per student (per ADA) is about
$5000
$2500
$7300
$10,000
The percentage of language minority students (whose home language is other and English) in California public schools is approximately
35%
15%
25%
40%
Which of the following is not a good ending for this sentence: Vouchers for students to attend private or participating public schools is
An indication that parents want more options
A political issue
Related to the theme of choice
A long-standing democratic tradition
According to a comprehensive study y the California Department of Educaiton in 1989, the CBO should have expertise in which of the following four areas?
Accounting, staff evaluation, staff development, economics
Business operations, collective bargaining, accounting, economics
Strategic planning, professional development, inventory control, legal procedures
Business operations, accounting, hiring procedures, program development
The following three elements are incorporated in the account codes
Incomes, expenditures, budget control
Historical, incremental, zero-based, revenue limit
Strategic planning, categorical programs, revenue limit
Site/department, object/services, program/activity
Incremental or historical budgeting means
The starting point is the prior year budget
The budget is built in small increments
Historical factors of the prior 10 years have priority in expenditures
Have little to do with allocating funds for salaries and benefits
The areas into which a budget is organized are prescribed by
The California Department of Education
The needs of the local school sites
The school district governing boards
The federal government
In California, the proportion of school district monies for K-12 education which comes from the state is about
90%
10%
Half
Two thirds
The major portion of a district’s income is from
Local property taxes
The revenue limit
The COLA
Categorical programs
Certificates of Participation (COP’s) are
A way to provide loans (long-term financing) for school districts
A method of determining involvement of stakeholders
Included the revenue part of the budget
Used for certifying a district’s financial stability
All district revenues are placed in which account?
8000 series
7000 series
A special state account
A local revenue account
The object code categories which comprise the largest expenditures in most school districts’ budgets are
5000 series (contracted services, including utilities)
1000-3000 (salaries and benefits)
The general fund categories combined
Restricted funds
Most districts spend at least the following percentage of their budget on personnel costs
50%
95%
66%
85%
Which type of fund is required for all districts
Which type of fund is required for all districts
General fund
Special reserve fund for capital outlay projects
Debt service
Student body
Revenue Limit income
Makes up most of the districts general fund
Is mostly unrestricted
Is the amount of money a district may receive for general purposes
All of the above
Which of the following has not been found to be a signal that may lead to fiscal insolvency
Which of the following has not been found to be a signal that may lead to fiscal insolvency
Small beginning and ending balance
Unrealistic bargaining contracts
Lack of experience in key personnel
Increasing enrollment
Which factor is the most significant factor in determining the per pupil cost of education
Teachers’ salaries
Administrators’ salaries
Student-teacher ratio (class size)
Cost of new buildings
What is the largest and most active fund of a school district which contains such expenditures as salaries, benefits, textbooks, and instructional supplies
Special reserve fund
Proprietary fund
Child development fund
General fund
Two of the highest funded categorical aid programs from the federal government include
Child nutrition (for district food services) and year round incentives
ECIA Title 1 and Child Nutrition
Transportation aid and GATE
School Improvement Program (SIP) and adult education
A trend in the 1980’s – 1990’s which affected the number of categorical programs funded both in California and form the federal level was
Increase in students from other countries
Requirements of school site councils
Consolidation
encroachment
Who has the legal responsibility to establish regulation and procedures for student body organizations and student body funds
The school principal
School boards
The state legislature
The student council
What type of information does a financial audit not provide for school districts
Financial condition of the district
Accounting methods used by staff
Impact of financial expenditures on educational programs
Compliance with laws and regulations
What must student body organizations do to make sure they are properly and legally functioning?
Have a constitution stating the purpose of the organization
Keep minutes of all meetings
Establish policies and procedures for elections of officers, fund-raisers, expenditure approvals
All of the above
Who must approve all fund raisers
The school board
The student council and the faculty sponsor
The principal
The principal and the student council
Non-cafeteria food items on elementary school campuses
May not be sold during the school day
May be sold after the noon meal has been served
May be sold anytime between 8:00 and 3:00
Are not regulated by state and federal laws
The following are legitimate fund raisers for student body organizations
Rummage sales
Raising funds for textbooks when the district has run out of money
Raising funds for special academic awards for outstanding students
Raffles to repair computer equipment
The cost of educating a special education student is
Very slightly larger than a regular education student
About three to seven times larger than a regular education student
Not a concern to most school districts because of special federal grants
Paid for by the state
Special education “encroachment” on the general education budget in school districts is usually
About 5%
20%-25%
Not a problem for most districts
Taken care of by federal funds
Trends in food service programs include
Consolidation
Decentralization
Customer orientation
Reducation of personnel
Which of these is not a requirement of the California Master Plan for Special Education?
Least restrictive environment
Individualized Education Plan
Seek individuals with exceptional needs
Employ legal counsel for fair hearings
A work order system
Is not necessary in smaller districts
Describes the purchase order of a piece of equipment
Is established when districts need to track the whereabouts of their staff
Helps track labor hours and material costs spent on repair jobs
What percent of California schools were considered in inadequate condition by the U.S. Government General Accounting Office?
25%
51%
2/3
87%
The primary effect of Proposition 13 on financing school construction has been
A shift of local control to the state
Required a 2/3 voter requirement on GO bonds
Reduced taxes by eliminating ad valorem taxes
Required an equalization gor law-wealth districts
Before Proposition 13, how did school districts fund their school constrution?
Through state funds
Through federal funds
Through local property taxes
Through loans from private sources
Districts who are approved to get construction funds for the state’s Leroy Greene Lease/Purchase Program must
Meet eligibility requirements
Provide matching local funds
Go through a complex process
All of the above
Some proven advantages of Class Size Reduction include
Higher student achievement on standardized tests
Improvement in instructional strategies
More effective utilization of facilities
Positive teacher attitudes
What are two ways to determine whether parents or guardians are “indigent” (two answers)
Notarized statement
Qualify for free an reduced lunch
Receive AFDC
Home visit by school official
T or F
The Federal Government has generally been involved in education by supplementing budgets for special needs
T or F
Education is a regarded as a public but not a private good.
T or F
The purpose of a district budget calendar is to guarantee financial solvency
T or F
California is among the highest in the nation in the amount of per-pupil expenditures for education.
T or F
A district’s ADA is usually slightly greater than its student enrollment
T or F
Multilingual/multiethnic diversity in California exceeds all other states
T or F
Enrollment projections are one of the most important activities to estimate future revenue.
T or F
In California, most of the funding for K-12 education comes from the state
T or F
Increases or decreases in the revenue limit are determined by the district school board
T or F
All districts must conduct a public hearing on the budget each year
T or F
By law, a “school year” for California students is 180 days
T or F
Most School Districts in California are Elementary Districts
T or F
Categorical funds are earmarked for specific purposes
t or F
California requires a credential for the Chief Business Officials(CBO) of school districts
T or f
Program budgeting assists in determining the cost effectiveness of various programs
t or F
The PPBS system of program budgeting is fairly simple to use and allows for site-based budget decisions
t or F
The general education unrestricted area of the budget included special education resource specialist programs (RSP).
T or f
Sales Tax is an example of a consumption tax
T or f
The purpose of the COLA is to help keep up with inflation
T or f
Districts may charge parents to transport regular education students to and from school
t or F
Based on a recent California court decision, districts may ask parents to pay for their childrens’ textbooks and school supplies.
T or f
Districts should classify each expenditure by designating the appropriate program and object codes on requisitions submitted by departments
t or F
The County Superintendent’s office has no significant role in the relation to budgets of school districts
T or f
Line item budgets are most commonly used by school districts for their general fund budget.
t or F
Reliance on property taxes as a major source of school revenues is the best way to guarantee fiscal equity among school districts
T or f
One of the major impacts of Proposition 13 was the higher level of state aid now in the funding formula for K-12 education
T or f
Proposition 98 established a constitutionally-based minimum funding floor for K-14 education
T or f
The Serrano vs. Priest decision is based on violations of the California State Constitution
t or F
Full compliance with Serrano v. Priest requires equal expenditures per pupil throughout the state
T or f
The California School Accounting Manual contains the account codes districts must use for revenues and expenditures.
T or f
Categorical aid programs tend to require greater control than basic revenues.
T or f
AB1200 was passed as a result of bankruptcy of some school districts.
t or F
A school district that has shown responsible financial accounting for a substantial period of years is not required to conduct an annual audit
T or f
Categorical funds may be distributed based on enrollment or eligibility formulae
t or F
Annual school district audits may be conducted by in-house fiscal advisors
T or f
Sale of food items on campus must be authorized by the school board
t or F
Student organizations receive an allocation of revenue from the district to operate their programs
t or F
Annual external audits for student body funds are not required- only periodic internal audits
T or f
Excess costs refers to deficits caused by encroachment
T or f
The California Supreme Court has ruled that it is legal for districts to charge parents for student transportation to and from school, unless parents or guardians are “indigent” of for special education
T or f
The term operations refers to a district’s housekeeping routines that keep the school plants functional
T or f
Repairs and replacement of facilities and equipment is a maintenance function
t or F
Contracting out of food services has been clearly shown to be superior in terms of food quality and of financial success to food prepared in-house in school district cafeterias
T or f
A school district’s policies on maintenance and operations should include the district’s philosophy on contracting out of services
t or F
Food Services monies are placed in the district’s general fund
t or F
Based on the Landscape and Lighting Act, a Maintenance Assessment District may be created to pay for district maintenance and operations
t or F
Based on the Landscape and Lighting Act, a Maintenance Assessment District may be created to pay for district maintenance and operations
t or F
Based on the Landscape and Lighting Act, a Maintenance Assessment District may be created to pay for district maintenance and operations
t or F
Based on the Landscape and Lighting Act, a Maintenance Assessment District may be created to pay for district maintenance and operations
t or F
Based on the Landscape and Lighting Act, a Maintenance Assessment District may be created to pay for district maintenance and operations
t or F
Based on the Landscape and Lighting Act, a Maintenance Assessment District may be created to pay for district maintenance and operations
t or F
Based on the Landscape and Lighting Act, a Maintenance Assessment District may be created to pay for district maintenance and operations
T or f
Over half of California’s school buildings were built before 1965
T or f
The state gives incentives for receiving school construction funds to schools that operate on a year-round schedule
t or F
State bonds require a 2/3 voter approval
T or f
Proposition 39, November 2000, changed the 2/3 voter approval requirements to 55% for local district general obligation bonds
T or f
Building new prisons competes for dollars from the same state fund with public schools.
t or F
The state bond issues have been adequate in the past to fund the applications for construction monies made by districts
T or f
Currently the major way of financing school construction in California is general obligation bonds
T or f
In order to receive School Improvement Program (SIP) funds, schools must have a plan developed by the school site council
t or F
The SAB (State Allocation Board) controls the distribution of state special education funds
What is the General Welfare Clause, and where is it found?
The commitment to promote the general welfare of all persons, as opposed to protecting the interests of a narrow section or class of the population.
It is found in the Preamble of the Constitution.

We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

What are the essential elements of the First Amendment?
The First Amendment contains the “Establishment Clause” and the “Free Exercise Clause”
Separation of Church and State. Can’t pass laws advancing or prohibiting religion.
Guarantees protection of Free Speech.
What is the essential element of the Fourth Amendment?
Protection against unreasonable search and seizure.
What is the essential element of the Fifth Amendment?
Due Process rights.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

What is the essential element of the Tenth Amendment?
Grants States’ rights to control any matter that is not addressed in the Constitution. For example, education.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

What are the essential elements of the Fourteenth Amendment?
Equal protection for all citizens.
Due process.

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

What are the key points of
Lau v. Nichols?
Lau remains the major precedent regarding the educational rights of language minorities, although it is grounded in statute (Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964), rather than in the U.S. Constitution.
The California Education Code stated that “English shall be the basic language of instruction in all schools.”
The Supreme Court ruled that non-English-speaking students were denied equal access to the educational experience and ordered the schools to rectify the situation.
What are the key points of
Pierce v. Society of Sisters?
Petitioners challenged Oregon’s Compulsory Education Act that required parents of children between the ages of eight and sixteen to send their child “to a public school for the period of time a public school shall be held during the current year.” The Society of Sisters operated schools that gave students moral training according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. The act led to students withdrawing from the religious schools- costing it a portion of its income.
Supreme Court ruled that the Act “unreasonably interferes with the liberty of parents and guardians to direct the upbringing and education of children under their control.”
Established that private schools meet mandatory attendance requirements.
What are the key points of
Equal Access Act of 1984 (Federal)?
Based on concept of “Limited Open Forum”
Most student-led, special interest, non-curriculum clubs must be allowed to organize in most U.S. high schools. The law was originally created to allow students to organize religious clubs in public secondary schools.
School districts can opt out of the Act by not allowing any non-curriculum clubs.
Held to be Constitutional by the Supreme Court in 1990.
What is a
“Limited Open Forum?”
A “limited open forum” exists under the Equal Access Act whenever a public secondary school “grants an offering to or opportunity for one or more noncurricular student groups to meet on school premises.”
What are the guidelines regarding the use of public school facilities?
If facilities are to be leased to one type of group, they must be available to all within the group.
Use may be denied if:
The user fails or refuses to abide by reasonable rules and regulations pertaining to the use.
There is a demonstrated danger of violence or disruption associated with meetings of this particular group.
The meeting violates a local ordinance or either state or federal constitutional provisions of law.
In the absence of a state statute mandating their use, local systems are not obligated to make school buildings available for public activities.
What are the essential elements of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
Deals with discrimination because of Race, Color, Religion, Sex, or National Origin.

To enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the Attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes.

What document provides California students with a free public education?
The California State Constitution.

ARTICLE 9 EDUCATION SEC. 5. The Legislature shall provide for a system of common schools by which a free school shall be kept up and supported in each district at least six months in every year, after the first year in which a school has been established.

What is the role of the California Legislature?
Passes laws.
Approves specific educational programs.
Provides funding for school programs.
Provides authority to the State Board of Education to establish School Districts.
Has the authority to establish curriculum and what is taught in public schools.
Where are the majority of the regulations and laws governing Education in California found?
California Education Code
California Administrative Code
What is the role of the California Legislature?
Passes laws.
Approves specific educational programs.
Provides funding for school programs.
Provides authority to the State Board of Education to establish School Districts.
Has the authority to establish curriculum and what is taught in public schools.
What are the laws governing the reporting of Child Abuse? Where are they found?
Found in California Penal Code
Child care workers – including school employees – are mandated reporters.
Must report within 36 hours.
Workers Compensation
School employees are covered.
What protection exists for school employees regarding negligence?
School employees are protected from damages related to negligence and liability provided they are acting within the scope of their responsibilities.
They may be named in the lawsuit, but the District is responsible to pay damages
What is covered in the California Administrative Code, Title V?
The rules and regulations established for California public schools by the State Board of Education.
What is the Brown Act (CA)?
Meetings of public bodies must be “open and public,” actions may not be secret, and action taken in violation of open meetings laws may be voided. Applies to Local Agencies, including counties, cities, school and special districts.
What are the provisions of the Brown Act?
post and send notice (72 hrs reg / 24 hrs emerg.)
limit action to items on the agenda
do not require a “sign in” for anyone
allow recording and broadcast of meetings
allow the public to address the covered board
conduct only public votes
treat documents as public “without delay”
Brown Act – What are the guidelines for closed meetings?
Closed meetings are the exception, and permitted only if they meet defined purposes and follow special requirements. Limited to discussions of:
Personnel (Confidentiality)
Litigation
Negotiations
The Board of Education has the authority to:
Take action only when all members, or a quorum are convened at an official meeting.
Approve Contracts
Must be awarded to lowest responsible bidder.
Reject Contracts
Can reopen bidding process.

Hire/Fire all employees
Establish duties/responsibilities for all employees.

The Board of Education has discretionary authority. What does that mean?
They can control policy on anything not covered by State Statutes, Laws, Regulations, Ed. Code, and Administrative Code.
What is the key point of
Wood v. Strickland?
Addresses the issue of school administrator and board member immunity from liability.
While on the basis of common-law tradition and public policy, school officials are entitled to a qualified good?faith immunity from liability for damages; however, they are not immune from such liability if they knew or reasonably should have known that the action they took within their sphere of official responsibility would violate the constitutional rights of the student affected, or if they took the action with the malicious intention to cause a deprivation of such rights or other injury to the student.
On what types of cases does the Supreme Court rule?
Cases of violation of Federal Laws.
Cases of Constitutional Rights.
Cases that have not been rendered (settled) in Lower Courts (State or Circuit)
Describe the compliance issues related to Attorney General opinions?
Attorney General opinions (State and Federal) serve as useful guidelines, but they do not represent the same degree of authority as a decision by a State’s courts or by a Federal Court in whose jurisdiction the State lies. These opinions are not binding, nor are they a source of law
What are the provisions of the Rehabilitation Act, Section 504 (1973)?
Section 504 protects handicapped students from discrimination in all programs receiving Federal funds.
Reasonable accommodations must be made.
Handicapped students may not be suspended, expelled, or otherwise punished for manifestations of their disability
What are the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)?
To assure that all children with disabilities are provided with a “free appropriate public education” that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs, and to prepare them for employment and independent living
What are the provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA-1990)?
Most sweeping antidiscrimination law since the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Protects individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodations, telecommunications, and other areas.
Applies to public and private sectors, regardless of whether federal funds are received.
Grounded in the Fourteenth Amendment.
What is a “Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)?”
Special Education and related services that are free and without cost to parents or students, and provided through an appropriate educational program that is under public supervision and direction, and in conformity with the child’s Individualized Education Program (IEP).
What are the key points of
Thomas v. Atascadero USD?
Ryan White case. School District excluded Ryan because he was infected with HIV/AIDS.
Supreme Court defined Ryan as a “handicapped person” and granted him protection within the meaning of the Rehabilitation Act, Section 504.
Students with infectious diseases may not be excluded from school without sound medical data.
If a teacher is dismissed due to declining enrollment, what rights does he/she have?
Must receive official notification in writing.
39 month rule – if enrollment increases within 39 months, the teacher has return rights to the same or comparable position with seniority and salary rights in tact
What is a Bargaining Unit, and who does it represent?
A bargaining unit is a group of employees who are represented by a labor union in their dealings with agency management. Bargaining unit status pertains solely to the positions employees hold within the agency. Employees are either in a bargaining unit (bargaining unit members) or are unrepresented.
Employees may elect to join the union and pay union dues. Such employees are union members in addition to being members of the bargaining unit. A union that has been accorded representational rights over a bargaining unit must represent all employees covered by that bargaining unit, regardless of whether or not they pay union dues. This is known as the duty of fair representation.
What action by a court will prevent teachers from going on strike?
An injunction

Injunction – An order issued by a court of equity prohibiting a person from committing a threatened act or continuing to do some act that is injurious to the plaintiff.

In Collective Bargaining, what are Agency Shop and Agency Fees?
Both are negotiable items.
Under an Agency Shop system, employees who are in a bargaining unit that is represented by a union either join the union and pay dues or pay fair-share fees.
The Agency Fees are the fees that employees in the bargaining unit are required to pay

4.0    Agency Fee/Dues Obligation: “Commencing within thirty (30) days of employees initial employment, throughout the term of this Agreement, each employee (as defined in Article I of this Agreement) is required as a condition of continued employment either: (a) to be a member in good standing of UTLA, or (b) to satisfy the agency fee financial obligations set forth in Section 4.1 below, unless qualified for religious exemption as set forth in Section 4.2 below.

What are the key points of
Pickering v. Board of Education?
Established the principle that public school teachers have the First Amendment right of freedom of expression.
Pickering was dismissed for writing a letter, published in a newspaper, critical of several of the board’s actions
Where can the allowable reasons for teacher dismissal be found?
They can be found in the California Education Code – Section 44932 & 44933
What are the allowable reasons for teacher dismissal?
Immoral or unprofessional conduct.
Commission, aiding, or advocating the commission of acts of criminal syndicalism, as prohibited by Chapter 188 of the Statutes of 1919, or in any amendment thereof.
Dishonesty.
Unsatisfactory performance.
Evident unfitness for service.
Physical or mental condition unfitting him or her to instruct or associate with children.
What are the allowable reasons for teacher dismissal?
Persistent violation of or refusal to obey the school laws of the state or reasonable regulations prescribed for the government of the public schools by the State Board of Education or by the governing board of the school district employing him or her.
Conviction of a felony or of any crime involving moral turpitude.
Violation of Section 51530 or conduct specified in Section 1028 of the Government Code, added by Chapter 1418 of the Statutes of 1947
What are the allowable reasons for teacher dismissal?
Knowing membership by the employee in the Communist Party.
Alcoholism or other drug abuse which makes the employee unfit to instruct or associate with children
What is the provision regarding tenure for Administrators?
An administrator may earn teacher tenure after two years in a District.
If administrator is dismissed from administrative position, they may assume a teaching position
Where can the allowable reasons for student suspension/expulsion be found?
They can be found in the California Education Code – Section 48900
What is the maximum number of days a student can be suspended in a given school year?
20 Days
Addressed in Section 48903 of the Ed Code.

48903. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (g) of Section 48911 and in Section 48912, the total number of days for which a pupil may be suspended from school shall not exceed 20 schooldays in any school year, unless for purposes of adjustment, a pupil enrolls in or is transferred to another regular school, an opportunity school or class, or a continuation education school or class, in which case the total number of schooldays for which the pupil may be suspended shall not exceed 30 days in any school year. (b) For the purposes of this section, a school district may count suspensions that occur while a pupil is enrolled in another school district toward the maximum number of days for which a pupil may be suspended in any school year.

What is the maximum number of consecutive days a student can be suspended from a classroom?
2 days
Addressed in Section 48910 of the Ed Code.

48910. (a) A teacher may suspend any pupil from the teacher’s class, for any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900, for the day of the suspension and the day following. The teacher shall immediately report the suspension to the principal of the school and send the pupil to the principal or the principal’s designee for appropriate action. If that action requires the continued presence of the pupil at the school site, the pupil shall be under appropriate supervision, as defined in policies and related regulations adopted by the governing board of the school district. As soon as possible, the teacher shall ask the parent or guardian of the pupil to attend a parent-teacher conference regarding the suspension.

What are the key points of
Goss v. Lopez?
Established the principle that students must be provided due process prior to their being excluded from school.
Due process requires
Oral or Written notice of the charges
A Hearing
An explanation of the evidence
An opportunity for the student to refute charges
A notification of rights to appeal
Why did California schools implement a student Dress Code?
To address the issues of gang attire and gang violence.
Outlined in Ed. Code – Section 35183
What are the key points of
Jeglin v. San Jacinto?
Upheld School Districts’ rights to establish a dress code.
In Jeglin v. San Jacinto Unified School District, a district court held that a ban on wearing all clothing with a collegiate or professional sports insignia was valid because the school could demonstrate gang activity in the school and document a connection between the clothing and the gangs.
The court held that the ban was unconstitutional in the middle and elementary schools because the district could not prove there was gang activity there.
The school must show an actual need for the restriction, not simply a preventative measure
What administrative authority exists regarding search and seizure?
The California Education Code No. provides school officials with a wide latitude to search students, their possessions, and automobiles, in the ongoing effort to maintain a safe and secure campus.
If a school official has established “reasonable suspicion” that a student may be in possession of contraband or dangerous objects, the student may be asked to empty all pockets and other personal items such as backpacks, lockers, and cars which may contain contraband or dangerous objects
What are the key points of
New Jersey v. TLO?
Provided public school educators with guidance regarding the search of individual students.
The legality of a search should depend simply on the reasonableness, under all circumstances, of the search.
Was the action justified at its inception?
Was the search reasonably related in scope to the circumstances which justified the interference in the first place.
Two girls were caught smoking. In a subsequent search, administrators discovered a pack of cigarettes. A continued search revealed rolling papers, marijuana, a pipe, empty plastic bags, a substantial amount of money, an index card with the names of students who owed T.L.O money, and two letters that implicated T.L.O. in marijuana dealing. The search was deemed justified by the Supreme Court
What laws govern expulsion from Private Schools?
Contract Law, not the law of due process, generally governs the issue of expulsion from a private school.
The private school does not operate under the “color of the state,” and, therefore, no process is due.
What are the key points of
Allen v. Casper?
There is no question that the relationship between private schools and students is a contractual one.
Absent a clear abuse of discretion by the school in the enforcement of its policies and regulations, courts will not interfere in these matters.
The Allens were asked to remove their children from Bethlehem Baptist Christian school after a series of events led to a dispute as to how the matters should have been handled and no resolution could be found. The Court upheld the school’s right to withdraw the children.
What are the key points of
Lee v. Weisman?
Prayers mandated or organized by school officials at graduation exercises are unconstitutional.
Such prayers are forbidden by the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
Supported by the Lemon Test. According to the test, government action must:
Reflect a clearly secular purpose
Neither advance nor inhibit religion
Avoid excessive government entanglement with religion
What are the key points of
Tinker v. DesMoines?
First Amendment / Free Speech case.
Black arm bands against Vietnam War.
Students have right to demonstrate peacefully.
“Students don’t shed their rights at the schoolhouse door.”
What are the key points of
Bethel v. Fraser?
Limited the Tinker Doctrine.
Student gave a “lewd” speech at a school assembly and was suspended.
Ruled that the determination of what manner of speech in the classroom or in school assembly is inappropriate properly rests with the school board.
Disclosed the Court’s opinion that public schools have an important role in imparting respect for civility of discourse.
What are the key points of
Hazelwood v. Kuhlemeier?
Established that school newspapers are not a public forum, and that educators do not offend the First Amendment by exercising editorial control over the style and content of student speech in school-sponsored expressive activities so long as their actions are reasonably related to pedagogical concerns.
School newspapers are part of the curricular program, which gives teachers and administrators authority to determine parameters
Define de facto and de jure segregation.
De Facto
Segregation occurs by virtue of where people choose to live.
Defined: In fact. A state of affairs that must be accepted for all practical purposes, but does not have the sanction of laws behind it.

De Jure
Segregation occurs in compliance with law.
Defined: By right. A legitimate state of affairs that has the force of law behind it.

What are the key points of
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)?
Established the “separate but equal” doctrine regarding public facilities and services used by Negroes.
It established a legal basis for segregated public facilities and services, thereby ushering in the era of de jure segregation in America.
Describes the then prevalent state view of inferiority in which black Americans were held
What are the key points of
Brown v. Topeka (Brown I, 1954)?
Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson.
The Court declared that segregation in public education was a denial of the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of the equal protection of laws.
Declared de jure segregation in public schools unconstitutional.
Court did not provide a remedy for those whom it affected
What are the key points of
Brown v. Topeka (Brown II, 1955)?
Dealt with implementation of Brown I
Local school authorities were given the primary responsibilities for fashioning desegregation plans.
Gradual relief constitutionally permissible, but should act “with all deliberate speed”
By 1964, only 1/3 of Southern districts had desegregated, most in border states or in districts with small numbers of black students; only 1% of black children in deep South attended integrated schools
What are the key points of
Serrano v. Priest?
The 1976 California Supreme Court decision that found the existing system of financing schools unconstitutional because it violated the Equal Protection Clause of the State Constitution. The court ruled that property tax rates and per pupil expenditures should be equalized and that, by 1980, the difference in revenue limits per pupil should be less than $100 (Serrano band).
Established that education was a constitutionally protected fundamental interest and that “wealth” was a “suspect” classification
What are the key points of
Serrano v. Priest?
Established the standard of “fiscal neutrality.”
The quality of a child’s education should not be based on the wealth of the local district but on the wealth of the state as a whole.
Advanced the notion that the state had the responsibility for financing education.
Test case was filed by Baldwin Park
What are the key points of
San Antonio v. Rodriguez?
Similar to Serrano, this case challenged the school finance system in the state of Texas.
The Supreme Court of the United States upheld the constitutionality of the Texas method of financing schools.
The Court held that education was not a fundamental interest requiring strict scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause
What are the key points of
Hartzell v Connell?
California Supreme Court – “The imposition of fees as a precondition for participation in educational programs offered by public high schools on a non-credit basis violates the free school guarantee of the California Constitution and the prohibition against school fees contained in title 5, section 350 of the California Administrative Code.”
“The constitutional defect in such fees can neither be corrected by providing waivers to indigent students, nor justified by pleading financial hardship.”
What is Tort law?
Tort is a private or civil wrong or injury.
Tort refers to that body of the law which will allow an injured person to obtain compensation from the person who caused the injury.
When one does cause injury to others, either intentionally or by negligence, they can be required by a court to pay money to the injured party (“damages”). Compensation is probably the most important social role of tort law.
Some torts may also be criminal.
What are the most common intentional torts with which educators become involved?
Assault and Battery
Assault is the placing of someone in apprehension of immediate or harmful or offensive contact. Shaking a fist at someone or holding a weapon in a hostile manner are examples of assault.
Battery is the unpermitted and unprivileged contact with another’s person, such as striking someone. Actual harm is not necessary to bring suit
What elements must be present to have a valid cause of action for negligence?
Duty of Care
There is a duty of care not to harm or injure another person whom a common-law or statutory relationship exists. For example, teacher-student.
Standard of Care
The standard of care a teacher must exercise to avoid liability is defined as that of the “reasonable and prudent” person. This standard is not absolute and depends on the child’s age, ability, type of class or activity, etc.
Proximate Cause
A causal connection must exist between the teacher’s conduct and the resultant injury for an action in negligence to prevail. The teacher’s negligence must be a substantial cause of the injury to a student.
Actual Loss or Injury
Proof of damage is an essential element in negligence action. Damages to assuage one’s feelings generally cannot be recovered in a negligence action where there has been no actual loss.
What protections exist for teachers regarding liability?
Teachers are protected from civil liability for actions committed while fulfilling the duties of their profession, so long as they act in conformity with state law and school rules.
What is the standard that courts use to determine liability in education-related cases?
There is no standard for Tort cases. Each is decided on an individual basis.
What are the key points of
Daily v. LAUSD?
Schools must provide adequate supervision of students at all times, and those supervising must be clear on the behavior expectations for student conduct.
Court contended that school authorities were negligent in the supervision process at a noon recess.
Students were “slap fighting,” which resulted in the death of one of the students
1. One of the strengths of the property tax is its stability.
True
2. The Serrano vs. Priest decision is based on violations of the California State Constitution.
True, the CA State Constitution’s “education clause” and the U.S. Constitution’s 14th Amendment & its “equal protection clause.”
3. A school district may finance school construction projects with general obligation bonds upon approval by 2/3 of the voters voting in a bond election.
Used to be true, but now…
False. Since November 2000, they require 55% only.
4. At the present time, no district in the State of California receives more than 50% of its school budget for current operations from the state.
False. The state currently provides 2/3 of any CA district’s funding (Townley, Chapter 7)
5. Only recently have serious attempts been made to provide general federal aid to education.
The 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution delegates responsibility of education to the states.
The federal government supplements school budgets for special needs.
The federal government contributes the largest amount of categorical aid.
1. The single most significant factor in determining the per pupil cost of education is the:
a. ( ) Teachers’ salaries
b. ( ) Administrators’ salaries
c. ( ) Cost of new buildings
d. (?) Student-teacher ratio
1. 3 major goals of a supervisory program. How would you measure your success?
Effective Evaluation System in place.
Measure by:
i. Diagnostic – ex: pretest, teacher competency test, surveys
ii. Formative – ex: portfolios, surveys
iii. Summative – ex: test scores, stull observations
Effective Communication
Measure by:
i. SBWA/MBWA (Supervision or Management By Walking Around)
ii. How many means of communication exist at that school?
iii. Clear expectations
iv. Establish culture of fairness
v. Open door
Improve Instruction
Measure by:
i. Empower teachers (lead teachers)
ii. SBWA/MBWA
iii. Learning walks
iv. Staff Development
v. Test scores
vi. Articulation
Staff Development & Growth
Staff Development & Growth
Measure by:
i. Test scores
ii. Teaming
iii. Continuing Education
iv. SBWA/MBWA
v. Surveys
vi. Articulation
vii. Innovative practices/risk-taking
School Climate
i. Collegiality
ii. Participation & Cooperation of school community
iii. Shared Decision making
iv. Teaming
v. MBWA
3. 4 common dissatisfactions with supervisory program.
Insincere evaluations (not true reflection of performance)
i. SBWA/MBWA
ii. On-going evaluations
iii. Peer evaluation/peer coaching
iv. Mentor involvement
v. Clinical supervision
vi. Emphasizes both empirical & intuitive methodologies (hard & soft data)
Punitive evaluation – serves as a ranking, judging, or criticizing technique rather than promoting growth, improvement, & increased effectiveness.
(Also look above)
No Collaboration (done to them, not with them; teachers have no say)
i. Delegate leadership
ii. Form committees
iii. Means of communication
(Also look above)
Not knowledgeable of instructional program
i. Get into classrooms (walks)
ii. Work with dept./grade level chairs
iii. Get curriculum training for administrators
iv. Meet with curriculum committee
Poor communication
i. SBWA/MBWA
ii. Get into classrooms (walks)
iii. Weekly bulletins/email/etc.
iv. Use varied means of communication
v. Open door
Lack of time & resource provision
i. Respond in timely manner (follow-up)
ii. Time release (ex: for common planning time)
iii. Use “staff meeting” time wisely
iv. Shared budget management
4. Values, skills, and knowledge required of professional practitioners in supervision?
Values:
i. Personal belief system
ii. Philosophy/Vision
iii. Integrity (“walk the talk”)
iv. Openness/Honesty
Skills:
i. Integration of communication, evaluation, & instruction
ii. Group & interpersonal communication skills
iii. Delegation
iv. Budget
Knowledge:
i. Curriculum/Instruction (current research & trends)
ii. Evaluation
iii. Budget
iv. Legal Aspects
v. Technology (trends)
vi. How to access info/Resources
5. Job prospectus for supervisor of instruction: Requirements for position? Responsibilities?
Requirements:
Staff development
Need knowledge of budget
Program evaluation
Knowledge of state frameworks & standards
Supervision of instruction
Managing change during implementation
Knowledge of current instructional research & trends
Responsibilities:
To prove efficacy of program(s)
Curricular alignment
Articulation
Delegate staff development responsibilities
Budget
Resources/Materials
6. Steps a principal might take to help teachers discover their potential
Staff development –
i. Get acquainted; establish buy-in; build trust
Opportunity for shared successes & celebrations
Reward system
Encourage interests & provide support resources
Encourage risk-taking
Outside/Community members involved
Delegate leadership roles
Portfolios: formative not summative evaluations
MBWA
Communicate
Peer coaching program
Cognitive coaching/Clinical supervision
Provide professional development; send to conferences
7. 3 skills necessary for effective communication
Build trust
Openness to risk-taking/allow time for innovation
Use variety of communication strategies
Be available
Have clear expectations
Clear vision & mission statements

OR (From Covey, Chapter 10)
3 Attitudes:
1) Assume good faith.
2) Care about the relationship & want to resolve difference.
3) Be open to influence & prepare to change.
3 Behaviors:
1) Listen to understand.
2) Speak to be understood.
3) Start dialogue from common point of reference or point of agreement; move slowly into areas of disagreement.
OR (From Daresh p.158)
Paraphrase (“In other words, what you’re saying is…”).
Check your perception (“If I understand what you’re saying…”).
Relate statements to personal feelings (“When you say that, I feel…”).
Use objective descriptions (“It’s not what you’re saying that I reject, but rather how you’re saying it.”).
Give feedback.

8. Techniques for evaluating
a) Himself/herself:
Personal reflection & self-assessment
Survey stakeholders (informal/formal)
Record of complaints
b) The Supervisory program (how effective is the supervision process):
Staff attendance
Staff turnover
Successful implementation of ideas
School climate
Degree of risk-taking
Degree of staff/community involvement & participation
(Measure the above with diagnostic, formative, summative evaluative techniques)
c) The School program:
Did they achieve goals according to site action plan/school vision & mission?
Standardized test data
Delivery of assistance as needed by different subgroups (i.e. free meal program, bilingual ed, special ed…)
9. Problems involved in determining objective measures used in evaluation of administrative personnel?
(See Hoyle Chapter 7)
Personality issues
Strong parent community
Bias/Subjectivity
Staff can’t observe them! No time or opportunity, so administrative peers conduct them.
Lack of training for evaluators
Diversity of community
Lack of uniformity/common measures/consistency
Inadequate follow-up
10. Plan for involvement of teachers in evaluating their own performance.
(See Hoyle Chapter 7 & Daresh Chapter 14)
(Also see #11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 29, 31)

Clinical Supervision
Peer coaching
Mentoring
Video
Portfolios

12. Procedure followed by school supervisor in
(See Daresh Chapter 15 & Hoyle p.129-130 on clinical supervision)

a) Planning a classroom visitation with a teacher
Establish trust
Establish ground rules of observation (time, length, & place of observation)
Establish specific plans for carrying out observation (Interact w/students? Sit where?)
Clear goals & objectives of lesson & visit
Determine specific items/problems on which to focus
b) Making the visit
Observe instruction
Methods: videos, script, checklists, timeline coding, seating chart, wide lens
c) The conference which follows the visitation
Were goals & objectives met?
Additional feedback on observation
Develop plan for helping teacher grow
Train teacher in techniques for self-supervision

13. Criteria for evaluating a particular teaching-learning situation
(Look above — at clinical supervision)

Shared goal setting
Clear objectives for the evaluation (i.e. teacher growth, higher student performance)
Evaluation procedures clearly communicated
Both teacher & supervisor input
Consideration of both quantitative & qualitative data

14. Teacher orientation program usable at any level of school system
Provide tour of campus
Faculty handbook
Provide CA Standards for Teacher
Link with experienced buddy/mentor
Provide calendar of important events
New teacher support meetings/ BTSA
Instructional meeting (by grade, dept.)
15. Desirable effects of a quality in-service education program (including educational theory):
(See Daresh Chapter 16 for educational theory)
Empowerment of teachers thru
i. Differentiated supervision
ii. In-service based on self-reported needs of participants
Positive change in attitude & behavior (i.e. motivation)
Desire for learning (thru learning-centered supervision)
Team work/ Collegiality/ Opportunity to share/ Collaboration
Improved instructional program
Utilization of participants’ talents & abilities
Self evaluation & reflection
Continuing education/follow-up
17. Values, limitations, and implications of teacher evaluation carried out by school team, not single administrator.
Values:
Less bias
Individual personalities less of a factor
More fair & objective
Builds trust/ more collegiality
Less fear of being used as punitive evaluation
Limitations:
Time for training
Who is part of the team? How is team established?
Pre- /post-observation conference ??when & where to meet?
Overwhelming to have team evaluation
Too many opinions
Not all experienced evaluators
Implications:
Development of common vision
Peer evaluation
More participant involvement
Good teaching tool for observers
18. Practices/activities that contribute to teachers’ teaching effectiveness. Discuss 2 in detail.
Working with colleagues
Planning/Mapping
Differentiated instruction
Know and use standards & frameworks
Align learning objectives with assessment strategies
Use technology
Attend professional development
Ongoing monitoring of students
Reflective teaching
Home/school communication
19. Problems involved in determining measures used in evaluating instructional personnel
Lack of uniformity & consistency among administrators
Bias/subjectivity built into measure
Needs at school and/or classroom vary
Differentiated evaluation measures
i. According to variety of styles
ii. According to level of teaching experience
Time consuming
Lack of expertise & skill on part of administrator
Many subject areas (in secondary)
Teacher involvement requires $/ resources and time
20. 3 reasons teachers fail & actions (?) a supervisor can take to help
Lack of goals & objectives ?? Frameworks, District Guides, school vision, alignment,
test scores, MBWA, peer coaching, visits, mentoring
Classroom Management ??Staff development, peer/mentor, visits, clinical observation
Lack of resources ??Resource list, Teaming/Collaboration
21. 4 important concepts in effective group leadership.
Focus on needs of group – procedural, agenda, or logistical needs; all voices heard
Task roles: quantifiable jobs (i.e. gather data, criteria for judging situations, …)
Just be knowledgeable & helpful; you don’t always have to be leader.
Develop solidarity – relieve tension, have common goal
Effective communication; all voices heard
Group norms & procedures
Shared decision-making/ teamwork (operate by consensus)
22. 3 important aspects of “instructional leadership”
(See Daresh Chapter 13 {p271-273}, Hoyle Chapter 6)

Develop vision/goals (based on Frameworks, standards, district guidelines)
Curriculum integration
Curriculum alignment (of recommended, written, taught, support, tested, learned curricula)
Communication
Planning ? scan nature of curriculum, strategy to include interested parties, clarify
learning objectives, anticipate political consequences
Implementation ? Resources, staff development support, maintain communications
Evaluation ? Relate to stated objectives, audience for evaluation, timelines, data-
collecting techniques, next steps?

23. 3 sources of conflict in organization. What can supervisor do to reduce them?
Parent vs. teacher ? Build trust
Teacher vs. teacher ? “
Teacher vs. administrator ? “
New teacher vs. veteran teacher ? “
Student vs. teacher ? “
OR
Lack of participation ?
Lack of communication ?
Decision-making ?
Change ?
24. 3 events in education that impacts the tasks of supervision at district/school level.
Budget cuts
Standards-based education ? focus is curricular/instructional
Immersion of Special Ed students
Site-based management
Violence (ex: Columbine) ? Keeping schools safe, media responsibilities, counseling, …
New contracts
27. Importance of school climate to supervisory effectiveness. Characteristics?
Total environmental quality (climate) ? product of behaviors demonstrated by stakeholders. Reflection of student learning.
Characteristics:
i. Trust/ collegiality
ii. Risk-taking
iii. Shared decision-making
iv. Sharing/ collaboration
v. Open communication
vi. Community involvement
vii. Engaged student learners
viii. Motivated teachers
ix. High expectations for all students & teachers
x. Clear vision & goals for school
29. 3 instruments used during observations, include criteria
(See Daresh Chapter 15)

INSTRUMENTS
T charts (similar to seating chart)
Timeline (Note-taking what happens at what time)
Seating charts (tallying how many times T talks to which S)
Scripting (Note-taking discourse between T and Ss)
Tape recorder
Video camcorder
Wide-lens technique (AKA Anecdotal notes ? “What happened?”)

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING INSTRUMENT
Objective/nonjudgmental
Time-effective
Little/no degree of disruption/distraction

31. 3 advantages and 3 disadvantages of clinical supervision
ADVANTAGES:
Focus = improvement of teacher’s classroom instruction
Teacher has freedom and responsibility to initiate issues, analyze his/her own teaching
Teacher involved
Supportive
Formative feedback
Non-punitive
On-going
DISADVANTAGES:
Takes too much time
Not intended for all teachers (i.e. first year teachers)
Model ignores that factors, other than teacher behavior, contribute to quality of school life.
Can’t work if you don’t have trust
Requires training & not enough time or $ to train
32. Strategies/techniques to encourage teachers to comply with new school district policy.
Staff development
Teacher pilot
Incentive (monetary and others)
Provide time
Resources
Opportunity for dialogue
Diagnostic Evaluation
used to determine beginning status or condition of something and
intervention/treatment necessary
Formative Evaluation
used to gain intermittent feedback concerning some activity/ practice while it is
in progress
Summative Evaluation
used for the goal of final judgment; the final point where an ultimate
disposition regarding a person or thing is made
Clinical supervision
supervision focused upon the improvement of the teacher’s classroom instruction
(includes: pre-observation conference, observation, analysis & strategy, post-observation conference, post-conference analysis)
Situational Leadership (Task and Relationship) (Daresh 109) –
acts of leadership are the direct result of situations that arise in groups or organizations that call for those acts. Thus, an individual’s exercise of leadership is brought about by the demands of the group with which that individual must interact; situation alone evokes leadership.
Proactive vs. Reactive
Deming’s Total Quality Management (TQM) (Daresh 18+)
Covey’s Principal Centered Leadership (Daresh 112) Theories of
McGregor’s Theory X/ Y Assumptions (Daresh 33 +) Motivation
Maslow’s Theory of a Hierarchy of Needs (Daresh 136)
Types of Power
1) Coercive Power – Capacity of one person to provide punishment or negative consequences to another in a deliberate attempt to control the other person’s behavior; based on fear
2) Utility Power – Power is based on useful exchange of goods and services. Follower has something leader wants; leader has something follower wants.
3) Legitimate Power – based on assumption that leader has legitimate right to exercise power & is supported by statement of policy, law, or historical precedent & tradition.
4) Expert Power – ability to influence others’ behavior based on special knowledge & expertise.
5) Principle-centered Power – based on follower believes in leader & in what they are trying to accomplish; based on trust & respect.
4 Areas of Supervision in Education:
1) Improvement of Instruction
2) Curriculum Development
3) Staff Development (Professional Development)
4) Evaluation and Assessment of Educational Program
Observation Tools (Daresh 313)
Selective Verbatim – transcript of exactly what is said, on the part of the lesson that the teacher & supervisor have decided beforehand will be the focus of the observation.
1) Teacher questions
2) Teacher feedback
3) Teacher directions & structuring statements
Seating Chart – graphically documenting the interaction between teacher & students.
1) On task
2) Verbal flow
3) Movement pattern
Checklists – predefined classifications of activities are checked off as completed
Time Line Coding – observer notes certain predetermined behaviors of teacher &/ or students at particular times during class.
1) Time on task
2) Interaction analysis
Wide Angle Lens – notes of events in a very broad fashion, to the question, “What happened?” (Anecdotal records)

*** Video & Audio recordings can be used in assistance to the above tools ***

Dr. Sim’s fine points on Supervision:
1. Proactive supervision is necessary to be productive and effective.
2. Know your own beliefs (education platform).
3. Understand the nature and character (culture) of your organization.
4. Supervision is an ongoing process.
5. Examine and understand the alternative perspective.
6. Be capable of analyzing the people in your organization and their patterns of behavior.
7. Be consistent.
1. 5 most critical “areas of competence” needed by today’s elementary school principal.OR (See Hoyle pages):
(23) Skills in policy & governance
1. Knowledge of school bureaucracy (superintendent/ school board/ state)
2. Ability to develop collaborative school linked services (i.e. intervention, prevention)
3. Organizational trust
(36) Communication & Community Relations
1. Articulate vision to community & media with effective writing & speaking
2. Engage & persuade community for programs that benefit students
3. Build consensus and create opportunities for staff development
(53) Organizational Management
1. Gather, analyze, & use data in decision-making
2. Delegate decision-making responsibilities
3. Use technology to enhance administration
4. Budget & financial planning
(69) Curriculum Planning & Development
1. Create appropriate curriculum & assess students’ present & future learning needs
2. Design, evaluate, and modify curriculum based on research, practice, and policies
3. Use technology
(105) Staff Evaluation & Management
1. Effective evaluation models and processes to assess
2. Develop personnel recruitment, selection, development, & promotion procedures
3. Conduct audits/ evaluations
(127) Staff Development
(141) Educational Research, Planning, & Evaluation
(85) Instructional Management
(1) Visionary Leadership
2. Steps you would take to establish a school climate which permits & encourages change on the part of the faculty (strategic action plan).
Learn the culture of the school
Create Open Door Policy
1. Establish trust
2. Establish procedure for communication
3. Create various lines of communication
Immediate response “policy”
Collaboration
1. To develop a school program
2. In decision-making (i.e. curriculum, staff development, etc.)
Determine: Who are the KEY (influential) stakeholders?
Establish leadership among faculty
Reestablish vision & goal
Establish committees
1. Attend meetings (including parent ones)
Recognition
3. Respond to “The Role of the Principal in Enhancing the Instructional Process.”
(See Glatthorn Chs 1, 3, 6-11)
(See Curriculum #s 6, 18; Sup ervision #22)
Also include information on the usage of DATA

OR (See Hoyle 85 –97)

Able to develop, monitor, and improve student learning
Motivate staff and students by reinforcing positive behavior
1. Students are most highly motivated if they believe they can achieve the level of mastery required
Promote effective classroom management by increasing student learning time, promote cooperative learning and problem-based learning
Encourage total student development (physical, emotional, social, cognitive)
Provide financial resources to enhance student learning
Promote multicultural issues and varied learning styles
Monitor student achievement using the standards, surveys, portfolios, test scores

4. You’re on selection committee for elementary/ secondary PRINCIPAL.
a) 4 questions you’d ask & b) why.
(See Townley 279)
Describe your personal vision for school leadership and/ or education.
? Because leader needs to have a focus and belief in a cause that drives them to higher levels of performance.
How would you go about creating change? OR
How do you act as an effective change agent to improve student achievement?
? Because leader has to be progressive & meet changing needs of students &
faculty. S/He must motivate & guide change at their site.
On evaluation procedures for both programs and personnel
? Because one of the keys of quality education is meeting one’s education &
organizational goals, objectives, and priorities. Determining the worth of school’s program & personnel can define the principal’s actions, for the ultimate goal of school improvement & student learning.
How are you involved with your community? OR
How would you involve your community?
How would you increase the instructional capacity at your school site?
What professional development activities have you been involved with?
On experience with committees.
What methods of student discipline have you found to be most effective? Why?
On special education.
7. 4 criteria that I employ in determining what should & shouldn’t be delegated.
Time lines – may/ may not be delegated depending on deadline.
Confidentiality issues – don’t delegate!
(Are there federal laws or state ed codes that determine what to delegate?)
1. Expulsion/ Suspension issues
a. State ed Code: Principals handle suspensions
2. Legal issues
a. Federal law (IDEA): Principal/ administrative designee signs IEPs
b. Remember liability issues (ex: safety)
Competence
1. There’s an expert on campus – delegate!
Willingness of teachers/ other staff members
Who does the outcome effect?
8. Ways in which principal might develop & broaden base of leadership within your faculty.
Staff development
1. Training
2. Observe other schools
3. Provide opportunities to present to staff
Encourage/ Empower staff
Delegation:
1. Staff in committees, in area of expertise
2. Establish leadership among staff
Collaboration & collegiality
Mentoring program
Recognition
9. Procedures that elementary school principal might employ to bring about maximum participation of school staff in decision making process within your school.
From Hoyle page 7-9:
Deming: “People must be trusted and provided support to improve their own performance and the product they produce.” The following are from Deming’s 14 Points:
Create a constancy of purpose (predictability; a process for always improving)
Adopt new philosophy (welcome change, team efforts, a sense of empowerment for all)
Institute training on the job (sharpen their professional saws)
Institute effective leadership (“servant leadership”; bottom-up power sharing)
Drive out fear (rust & mutual support)
Break down barriers between departments/ stakeholder groups
Remove barriers that reduce pride of workmanship (too much competition destroys collegiality & teamwork)
Ask everyone to participate in continuous improvement of the school
10. Most significant requirements for effective group participation (strategic planning).
(See #2; Supervision #9)
(See Daresh Ch 11, Hoyle page 39)
Give clear tasks
Task is something the group can do
Give clear time limits
Have them produce a product
Be prepared to renegotiate it
Establish group norms (HOW group works together)
Time for group to evaluate their process

OR

Interaction effectiveness: The extent to which group activities reduce conflict & enhance harmony within the membership of the group. A group is effective to the degree that positive, open, and friendly interaction occurs among its members.
Task effectiveness: The extent to which group activities promote, define, clarify, pursue and accomplish the group’s goals. The focus is on getting the job done at almost any cost.
** Balance between these two dimensions of group effectiveness will determine a group’s
success.

13. Methods & procedures to assess quality of leadership within school.
Surveys
1. Looking at participation of committees
2. Staff meeting participation
3. # of people enrolled in continuing education programs
Student outcomes (test scores, performance, report cards)
Program outcomes
Observe interaction with community members (students, teachers, parents, etc.)
14. You are elementary principal. Create a plan for articulation with junior high school.
Make sure there’s time for planning
Make sure there’s time for exchange of cums/ records
Publish school’s curriculum plan
Materials list for appropriate grade level (core lit, software, etc.)
17. Procedures you would employ to determine, solicit, organize, and make use of the various community resources in the instructional program of your school?
Determine
Needs at school
School vision?
School goals?
Lack of funding for?
Solicit
Advertise
Phone calls
Letters
Extend invitation to community businesses to visit
Organize
Organize committees
Arrange meetings
Implement/ Make use of: set time lines, establish desired outcomes
18. 4 major features of IDEA (previously Public Law 94-142).
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Establishing Due Process Rights (especially Parental rights)
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
IEP must contain 1) placement in LRE; 2) management tool toward achievement of LRE; 3) statement of eligibility; 4) behavior plan
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Provision of education & related services are at no cost to family (FREE).
The IEP is the APPROPRIATE education – can include OT, Speech, transportation, Adaptive Physical Education, Counseling.
Non-discriminatory education
20. Procedures to assess feelings, beliefs, & opinions of people in school regarding your school.
Survey
1. Degree of involvement
Town hall meetings
Observations (SBWA/ MBWA)
Discussions – formal & informal
Community – are they involved? To what degree?
Sign-in sheets
1. For volunteers
2. For meetings
21. How would you proceed in establishing an effective school-community relations program in your school?
Communication
1. Verbal
2. Written
3. Body language/ gestures
Ground rules/ procedures for communication processes (i.e. parent/ teacher, teacher/ administrator
Group norms for meetings
Celebrate & publicize successes
Be visible!
Accommodate parents
1. Transportation
2. Translation
3. Parent room
4. Parent education classes
21. How would you proceed in establishing an effective school-community relations program in your school?
Communication
1. Verbal
2. Written
3. Body language/ gestures
Ground rules/ procedures for communication processes (i.e. parent/ teacher, teacher/ administrator
Group norms for meetings
Celebrate & publicize successes
Be visible!
Accommodate parents
1. Transportation
2. Translation
3. Parent room
4. Parent education classes
22. 4 interview questions for paraprofessionals
Describe your experiences working with children
Career goals
Why do you want this job? What do you want out of this job?
What are your expectations for this job?
Situational questions on discipline.
Situational questions on academic
Academic strengths
Career goals
Why do you want this job? What do you want out of this job?
What are your expectations for this job?
Situational questions on discipline.
Situational questions on academic
Academic strengths
26. Steps to implement a positive change in learning environment at your school. What methods to measure your success?
Steps:
Provide resources & materials
Time for implementation
Training/ Professional Development
Shared leadership
Alignment
Parent education classes
Methods:
Grades
Surveys
Observations
Discussions (during faculty, town hall, & school council meetings)
Level of staff involvement
Enrollment in continuing education classes

OR (See Hoyle 85 + “A Mode for Productive, Continuous Change”)
Collaborative Leadership +
Stakeholder Focus and Connectivity +
Linkage to Outside Support
= PRODUCTIVE & CONTINUOUS CHANGE

27. Methods & procedures a principal might employ to assess leadership effectiveness of your assistant principal.
How do children respond to them (Observation)
Do they meet deadlines? (Dates met)
Do they collaborate? (Teacher & community feedback)
Problem-solving skills
Communication skills
Outcome of the programs they’ve had responsibility for
(Self assessment & reflection)
(Portfolio)
28. Identify & describe various sources of authority vested in a school principal.
(See Daresh Chapter 9, specifically p 192)
Formal: derived from such sources as the organizational hierarchy, laws, a person’s position in an
organization, or office.
How board decides & sets policy
Informal/ Functional: derived from such things as a person’s professional expertise & competence,
interpersonal skills, and suggestion of great experience in handling a particular situation.
Comes from teachers, parents, students
** “It is critical that the proactive educational leader always recognizes the
strengths and limitations of both formal and functional authority patterns.”
29. 4 guidelines you as principal feel should be included in policy which Board might submit for negotiation.
Establish representation on the Board
1. All teachers must participate at some point
2. Parent representation
Voting procedures & measures
1. Election procedure on voting for representatives
Times for meeting (during work time, after school, etc.)
Conflict resolution procedures
Structure of authority
1. Final decision-making process
2. Limits of authority
30. Identify & explain major “forces” within a community that have potential influence upon educational policy in an elementary school.
Influential people:
1. Parents
2. Teachers
3. Administrators
4. Students
School Board (which authorizes the superintendent)
Business community
Political groups
Media
Language/ Culture (migrating trends)
Other neighborhood schools (public and private)
Socio-economic conditions
Culture
32. Arguments against “School Site Management”:
(See General Administration #25)
(See Supervision #21 on group leadership)
TIME: Everything takes longer ? longer processes
INCOMPETENCE
1. Inability to get things accomplished
2. If incompetent staff, SBM is not beneficial
Teachers are overburdened
? Teachers unwilling to participate
Takes power/ leadership away from district & principal
Strategic Action Plan model (Hoyle 13)
The Context Stage – needs, goals & priorities
The Resource Stage – money, people, time benchmarks, measures of quality
The Monitoring Stage – Compare programs with benchmarks, alter goals if needed
Assessment
Directive – Principal sets standards & criteria to be evaluated
Principal tell evaluatee what information to submit
Principal gives praise & constructive criticism
Collaborative –Everything above worked on together
Nondirective – Evaluatee sets own goals
Evaluatee puts together a process folio with reflective pieces
Evaluatee discusses findings with Principal
Katz’s 3 Skill Approach to the Consideration of Administration:
1) Technical Skill – proficiency in methods, techniques, processes (most easily learned)
2) Human Skill – ability to work effectively with people
3) Conceptual Skill – ability to see the organization as a whole & how various functions interrelate (most difficult skill to acquire)
3 Stages of Personnel Process
1) Hiring
a. Recruitment – “Every vacancy gives the principal an opportunity to improve instruction in the school.”
b. Selection – Paper screening, Letters of recommendation, Transcripts/ Credentials,
Testing (?), Interview, Notify candidates
2) Employment
a. Evaluation
i. Purpose:
1. Improve instruction
2. Reward superior performance
3. Guide professional development
4. Protect students and teachers
5. Validate district’s selection process
6. Determine placement, promotion, or termination
ii. Critical Competencies for Teachers, CA Model
1. Manages the classroom
2. Motivates & creates a learning environment
3. Instructs students
4. Plans & organizes the classroom
5. Communicates effectively
3) Withdrawal
a. Retire
b. Quit
c. Non-reelected
SECTION I – Administrators are continuously faced with the task of making decisions with regard to issues, personnel problems, operational procedures, etc. Discuss the dynamics of the decision-making process.
Factors that guide decision-making:
Define the problem
Delegate decision-making SBM
Centralization / Decentralization
Situational Leadership
Adhere to legal concepts, regulations and codes for school operations
Use technology to enhance administration
Financial Planning – Establish monitoring system for efficiency.
Decision-making options:
Decide and announce
Gather input from individuals and decide
gather input from group and decide
consensus
SECTION II – The Increase in required courses mandated by changes in the state law and college entrance requirements have seriously decreased the opportunity for students to enroll in elective courses. Cite several arguments for and several arguments against the increase in required courses.
For:
Increase required courses in state laws
College entrance requirements for high schools
Aid students in competitive technological market
Become strong moral and ethical values
Against
Increase in required courses decreases opportunity for students to enroll in elective courses.
Not a personalized learning plan including students strengths
Would feel helpless
UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2)
General Welfare Clause (Article 1, Section 8; Preamble to the U.S. Constitution)
Obligation of Contracts Clause (Article 1, Section 10)
First Amendment: provides freedoms of religion in the Establishment and Free Exercise clauses (separation of church and state) and freedom of speech rights.
Fourth Amendment: protects against unreasonable search and seizure.
Fifth Amendment: guarantees due process rights.
Eighth Amendment: addresses cruel and unusual punishment.
Tenth Amendment: grants States’ rights, state controls matters not addressed in US Constitution.
Fourteenth Amendment: provides equal protection for all citizens and due process.
FEDERAL STATUTES
Statute – law written by the legislative branch of government
EQUAL ACCESS: Equal Access Act of 1984- PL 98-377, 20 U.S.C. 4071, – denial of Equal Access prohibited. It is unlawful for a public secondary school that receives federal funds and has created a limited open forum to deny recognition of student-initiated groups on the basis of religious, political, or philosophical content at on campus meetings.
FERPA: Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, PL 93-380, 20 U.S.C. 1232G – student privacy rights regarding school records. Pupils’ cumulative records are not public records. Only those persons with a legitimate educational interest may have access to the records without parental permission. Parents and guardians have a right to challenge incorrect records. Non custodial parents may see records but have no right to challenge records.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Elementary and Secondary Education Act, PL 107-110, 20 U.S.C. 6301 – purpose to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high quality education and reach proficiency on state academic achievement standards.
TITLE VII of the CIVIL RIGHTS ACT of 1964: PL 88-352, 42 U.S.C. 2000E – It is unlawful to discriminate in employment against any individual with respect to race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
TITLE IX of the EDUCATION AMENDMENTS: PL 92-318, 20 U.S.C. 1681 – School districts that are recipients of federal financial assistance may not discriminate against students in respect to gender.
FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM / CASE LAW
Case Law – refers to principles of law established by courts; based on legal precedents.
The federal court system is comprised of three levels: district court (court of trial), court of appeals, and the highest court of the land, the U.S. Supreme Court.
California is in the 9th Circuit of the Federal Court System.
The Supreme Court grants a writ of certiorari when at least four justices have agreed to hear a case at the Supreme Court level. If a case is denied “cert” the decision of the lower court stands.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
Code of Federal Regulations
CALIFORNIA CONSTITUTION
California State Constitution provides students with the guarantee of a free public education.
CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE / STATUES
The legislature is endowed with plenary (full, entire) authority to create subordinate agencies essential to the effective supervision and management of public schools.
The legislature may delegate this function to municipalities and counties instead of to separate school boards.
The legislature maintains (within constitutional limits) the power to establish qualifications, number, composition, method of election, and removal of agencies designated to operate the school system.
The legislature has authority to establish curriculum, what is taught in public schools
The legislature has the power to establish public school system.
School employees are covered by Workers’ compensation.
School property is considered to be state property.
Regulations and laws governing public education are found in the California Education Code and California Administrative Code, Title V.
The California Education Code – the collection of statutes that regulates the organization and administration of the California public school system.
The RODDA Act of 1975, Gov. Code sections 3540 – 3549.3 – California legislation that authorizes teacher collective bargaining.
PERB, Public Employees’ Relations Board established by the RODDA Act. PERB conducts hearings relative to unfair labor practices.
In California, any impasse in teacher collective bargaining negotiations requires mediation.
School officials must report attacks or threats against school employees to police.
Written opinions by the Attorney General are not binding.
OTHER STATE SOURCES OF LAW
CALIFORNIA JUDICIARY / CASE LAW
Case Law – refers to principles of law established by courts; based on legal precedents.
The California state court system is comprised of: superior court (court of trial), court of appeals, and the highest court of appeals, the California Supreme Court.
CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE CODE – TITLE V
Title V is the administrative code (rules and regulations) established by the California Department of
STATE GOVERNANCE
California State Board of Education – established by the California Constitution. Educ. Code sections 33000-33080. The board must oversee the efficiency of the public school system.
State Superintendent of Public Instruction – established by the California Constitution. Educ. Code sections 33100-33193 list the powers and duties of the position.
County Boards of Education – established by the state legislature.
County Superintendents of Schools
Local Boards of Education
School District Superintendents
Principals
LOCAL BOARDS OF EDUCATION
A Board of Education or other regulatory school agency provides the means by which the management and supervision of the public schools find expression. Legally it is an administrative body executing and administering the statutes promulgated by the legislature.
The composition of the School Board generally is determined by statutory provisions. Within the restrictions imposed by the Constitution, it is for the legislature to prescribe the qualifications a candidate must possess in order to qualify as a board member. Education Code Sections 33000-33080.

SCHOOL BOARD MEETINGS
The Brown Act, Gov. Code section 54950, et. Seq., is the California statute that governs open meetings for local legislative bodies, including school board meetings.
All school board meetings must be conducted in conformity with the Brown Act provisions. Failure to promulgate time, place, and notice of meetings could invalidate board transactions.
Governing boards have the authority to conduct school business only at legally constituted meetings. All negotiations transacted under the jurisdiction of the school district must be accomplished by board members acting as a corporate body. School districts MAY be held liable for the informal individual acts of its board members.
Notice of meetings: items relating to general meetings, special meetings, notice thereof, place, quorum, and purpose are regulated by the legislature.
Compliance with the Brown Act requires that the Board of Education may convene to closed or executive session to discuss litigation, negotiations, or personnel matters.

BOARD POWERS AND DUTIES
Official actions and minutes: every official act taken by the governing board of every SD shall be affirmed by a formal vote of the members of the board and the board shall keep minutes of its meetings and maintain a journal of its proceedings. The minutes and the journal shall be open to inspection by any citizen during business hours. The governing board shall act by majority vote.
The board has the authority to secure copyrights.
Boards are responsible for establishing duties of all district personnel and for hiring and firing employees.
The governing board of any SD shall adopt and print and make available to each certificated employee, the district rules and regulations providing for the evaluation of the performance of certificated employees in their assigned duties (Stull bill/negotiated).
Discretionary Board of Education authority refers to matters not covered by federal and state statutes, regulations, and laws. In exercising this discretion, board members must act in good faith and with diligence.

LEGAL AUTHORITY TO CONTRACT
Local boards have the authority to award and reject bids for contractual services.
Legal authority to contract is governed by statute. The right to contract is a discretionary board power and may not be delegated.
A SD may not make any contract unconnected with the educational purpose for which it is created.
Contracts which were valid when negotiated are binding on members replacing the personnel responsible for the transaction.
In California, the governing board of any SD may award contracts to the “lowest responsible bidder” – the lowest bid submitted whose offer is best qualified in quality, fitness, and ability to perform the particular requirements of the proposed work. A bidder may be found to be not a responsible bidder when previous performance for the same SD was determined unsatisfactory.

SCHOOLS AND THE STATE
Compulsory attendance in California: Education Code section 48200 – all children between the ages of 6 and 18 must attend a public full time day school unless otherwise exempted. Exemptions:
Private tutoring exemption – Educ. Code section 48224 – teacher must hold valid California teaching credential in the grades taught, 3 hours a day, 175 days a year.
Private school exemption – Educ. Code section 48222 – children enrolled in a full time private school
Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U.S. 510, – affirmed the doctrine of private school compulsory attendance requirements.
Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 – funding for children who are in the country illegally cannot be withheld from public, local schools
Engle v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 – recitation of a state written and sponsored prayer
School District of Abington Township v. Schempp, and Murray v. Curlett, 374 U.S. 203 – prayers and Bible reading in the classroom
Lee v. Weisman, 505 U.S. 577 – prayers mandated or organized by school officials at graduation exercises are unconstitutional.
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 – Lemon test – a three-part Establishment Clause test. A governmental practice must (1) reflect a clearly secular purpose; (2) have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion; and (3) avoid excessive entanglement with religion.
Edwards v. Aguillard, 482 U.S. 578 – teaching of evolution versus creationism
Good News Club v. Milford Central School, 533 U.S. 98 – relying on the viewpoint discrimination test, the court allowed a religious club that engaged in religious activities to meet after school.
Hartzell v. Connell, 35 Cal. 3d 899 – the imposition of fees for educational activities offered by public high schools violates free school guarantee of the California Constitution.
Berg v. Glen Cove, 853 F.Supp. 651 – immunization upon entry to school
School immunization in California – Health and Safety Code section 120335; waiver in Health and Safety Code section 120365.
STUDENTS AND THE LAW
Compulsory attendance in California: Education Code section 48200 – all children between the ages of 6 and 18 must attend a public full time day school unless otherwise exempted. Exemptions:
Private tutoring exemption – Educ. Code section 48224 – teacher must hold valid California teaching credential in the grades taught, 3 hours a day, 175 days a year.
Private school exemption – Educ. Code section 48222 – children enrolled in a full time private school
Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U.S. 510, – affirmed the doctrine of private school compulsory attendance requirements.
Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 – funding for children who are in the country illegally cannot be withheld from public, local schools
Engle v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 – recitation of a state written and sponsored prayer
School District of Abington Township v. Schempp, and Murray v. Curlett, 374 U.S. 203 – prayers and Bible reading in the classroom
Lee v. Weisman, 505 U.S. 577 – prayers mandated or organized by school officials at graduation exercises are unconstitutional.
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 – Lemon test – a three-part Establishment Clause test. A governmental practice must (1) reflect a clearly secular purpose; (2) have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion; and (3) avoid excessive entanglement with religion.
Edwards v. Aguillard, 482 U.S. 578 – teaching of evolution versus creationism
Good News Club v. Milford Central School, 533 U.S. 98 – relying on the viewpoint discrimination test, the court allowed a religious club that engaged in religious activities to meet after school.
Hartzell v. Connell, 35 Cal. 3d 899 – the imposition of fees for educational activities offered by public high schools violates free school guarantee of the California Constitution.
Berg v. Glen Cove, 853 F.Supp. 651 – immunization upon entry to school
School immunization in California – Health and Safety Code section 120335; waiver in Health and Safety Code section 120365.
STUDENTS AND THE LAW
Tinker v. Des Moines, 393 U.S. 503 – Students’ rights to freedom of speech and freedom of expression
Bethel School District v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 – upheld public schools’ authority to punish students and to prohibit students’ use of vulgar, obscene, lewd, and offensive speech in public discourse.
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260 – upheld authority of school officials to censor school newspaper written by students as a curricular activity.
Sherman v. Community School District, 980 F.2d 437 – Pledge of Allegiance
California patriotic exercises – Education Code section 52720
Goss v. Lopez, 419 U.S. 565 – upheld students’ rights to due process prior to exclusion from school in cases of suspension and expulsion in public schools. Due process rights require written notification of charges, right to a fair hearing, and appeal rights.
Gonzalez v. McEuen, 435 F.Supp. 460 – public school expulsion
Allen v. Casper, 622 N.E.2d 367 – contract law generally governs issue of student expulsion from a private school.
California suspension and expulsion procedures, Education Code sections 48900-48900.7, 48910, 48911, 48915, 48918.
Teachers can dismiss students from classroom for two consecutive days.
Ingraham v. Wright, 430 U.S. 651 – corporal punishment
California corporal punishment – violation of California Education Code section 49000.
New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325 – justifies student searches based on reasonable suspicion.
Jeglin v. San Jacinto, 827 F.Supp. 1459 – California Dress Code that prohibits student from wearing gang related clothing in public high schools.
Palmer v. Merluzzi, 868 F.2d 90 – due process for extracurricular activities
Beeson v. Kiowa County, 567 P.2d 801 – married students rights
TEACHERS AND THE LAW
Teacher classification – certificated employees include credentialed persons such as teachers, counselors, school psychologists, and administrators. Classified employees provide support, such as janitorial services, cafeteria, etc.
California – Teacher evaluation under the Stull Act – Educ. Code sections 44660-44664
Certificated employees who are evaluated are entitled to receive a written copy of the evaluation at least 30 days prior to the last day of school scheduled on the calendar.
Progressive discipline – oral warning, a written warning delivered to the employee, a letter of reprimand to be placed in the employee’s file, an unsatisfactory evaluation, suspension with pay, and dismissal.
California – teachers are classified as probationary for the first two years of service with a school district.
The school district must notify a probationary employee on or before March 15 of the employee’s second consecutive school year of employment of the decision not to reelect him or her for the next school year; otherwise the employee is automatically reelected.
Probationary teachers are entitled to written notice of intent not to re- employ.
Board of Regents v. Roth, 408 U.S. 564 – no reason for nonrenewal required for non tenured teacher
Tenure status is a statutory right to continued employment.
Pickering v. Board of Education, 391 U.S. 563 – established that public school teachers have the First Amendment right of freedom of expression.
Teachers with tenure can be dismissed for cause.
California Education Code sections 44943 and 44944 cite the grounds for teacher dismissal.
California Education Code sections 44955 -44957 cite the dismissal procedures for permanent teachers.
School principals earn tenure as teachers.
Permanent teachers who are dismissed due to declining enrollment have 39-month reemployment rights.
Probationary teachers employed by a district for two consecutive years become permanent when re-elected for a third year of employment.
A permanent classified employee may not be dismissed without notice and a hearing. A classified employee must receive written notice of a layoff forty-five days in advance of the layoff.
Mt. Healthy District v. Doyle, 429 U.S. 274 – upheld a nontenured teacher’s freedom of expression.
Fowler v. Board of Education, 819 F.2d 657 – academic freedom or abdication of teaching duty/
Wilson v. Chancellor, 418 F.Supp.1358 – academic freedom to bring in political speakers
East Hartford v. East Hartford, 562 F.2d 838– 1st Amendment rights of teacher who didn’t want to wear a tie were not violated.
Fuhr v. City of Hazel Park, 364 F.3d 753 – teacher not chosen to coach boys team because of her gender – discrimination
Eckmann v. Board of Education, 636 F.Supp.1214 – pregnant teacher was dismissed because she decided not to get married – discrimination
Lehnert v. Ferris Faculty, 500 U.S. 507 – teacher bargaining – agency shop structure upheld, but dues of non members can not be used for political lobbying.
SCHOOL DESEGREGATION
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 – established doctrine of “separate but equal.”
De jure – legitimate state of affairs that has force of law behind it. By right.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 – overturned Plessy v. Ferguson.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (Brown II), 349 U.S. 294 – desegregation must end with all deliberate haste
Brown decision formed basis for mainstreaming in Special Education.
Sheff v. O’Neill, 733 A.2d 925 – interdistrict integration, choice plans
De facto – must be accepted, but does not have sanction of laws. In fact.

SPECIAL EDUCATION / INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004, 20 U.S.C. §1401, provides legal rights and procedural protection for children with disabilities.
Child Find/Zero Reject – the LEA must locate all children with disabilities located within the district, including children in public schools, private schools, and homeless children. The LEA may not exclude children because of the severity of the disability.
Non-discriminatory assessment – the assessment must be multi disciplinary and cannot discriminate. Children must be assessed in all areas of suspected disability.
Free Appropriate Public Education – (FAPE)
Individualized Educational Program – (IEP)
Least Restrictive Environment – to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities should be educated with children who do not have disabilities. The IEP may require other arrangements in order to provide a FAPE.
Due Process – the LEA must notify parents of their procedural rights and safeguards.
Students must not be expelled, suspended, or punished for manifestations of their disability. FAPE must be provided when a removal is necessary.
Hudson v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176 – child performs better than average child in her class. Court rule that she is receiving adequate services.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, PL 93-112, 29 U.S.C. 794 – prohibits discrimination against students with disabilities in programs receiving federal funds. Requires reasonable accommodations.
Thomas v. Atascadero, 662 F.Supp.376 – exclusion of student based on HIV/AIDS violates Rehabilitation Act, Section 504.
Grube v. Bethlehem, 550 F.Supp.418 – student with one kidney is otherwise qualified to play football and cannot be discriminated against because of his disability.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 42 U.S.C. §12132, extends antidiscrimination protections in employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications.

SCHOOL FINANCE
Serrano v. Priest, 487 P.2d 1241 – California finance case. Education is a fundamental right. Established standard of fiscal neutrality. The quality of a child’s education could not be based on the wealth of a child’s local school district. Must be based on the wealth of the state as a whole.
San Antonio v. Rodriguez, 411 U.S. 1 – school finance case in Texas. Education is not among rights afforded explicit protection under the Federal Constitution.
Rose v. Council, 790 S.W.2d 186 – Kentucky finance case. Violation of Kentucky constitution.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 536 U.S. 639 – US Supreme Court determined Cleveland voucher program met the criteria of the Lemon test and did not violate the Establishment Clause of the 1st Amendment.
Williams v. State of California settlement – parents must be notified annually of right to hearing regarding lack of materials, state of campus, status of teaching credentials. Not necessary to provide more than one copy of textbooks to each student. No duty to provide textbooks to nonpublic schools.
SCHOOL DISTRICT LIABILITY
Tort – a private or civil wrong.
Intentional torts – assault, battery, defamation
Negligence – duty of care, standard of care, action by reasonable and prudent person, actual loss or injury, proximate cause, requires proof of damage.
Proximate cause – the relation or nexus between defendant’s action and resulting injury.
Teachers have liability protection within scope of duties performed.
Court decides liability relative to adequate supervision.
Defenses to negligence
Assumption of risk – may be available as a defense when injured party knew of possible danger; either by agreement or actions voluntarily accepted the possibility of harm.
Comparative negligence – the injury was partly the fault of several persons
Contributory negligence – the injured party contributed to his/her injury
Responsibility for supervision of students at off-campus activities same as on campus.
Wood v. Strickland, 420 U.S. 308 – addresses the issue of school board member immunity from liability.
Carey v. Piphus, 435 U.S. 247 – court will not award large punitive damages where little or no actual harm occurred. Only nominal damages will apply.
Parents are liable for tortious conduct of their children.
Peter W. v. San Francisco, 131 Cal.Rptr.854 – educational malpractice case. Plaintiff’s position was not upheld. District issued diploma, yet student does not have basic academic skills.
Gebser v. Lago Vista, 524 U.S. 274 – teacher to student harassment – school district not liable when they had no knowledge of the harassment.
Davis v. Monroe County, 526 U.S. 629 – student to student harassment – school district was liable when they had actual knowledge of the harassment, the harassment was ongoing and caused harm, and the district acted with deliberate indifference.
Requirements for reporting suspected child abuse are cited in the California Penal Code. Written reports must be submitted within 36 hours.
COPYRIGHT LAW
The Copyright Act of 1976 established guidelines for the use of copyrighted material in a reasonable manner without the owner’s consent.
Fair Use Guidelines: single copies may be made by or for a teacher for scholarly research or use to teach a class; multiple copies are restricted by brevity – not more than 10% of the work, spontaneity – not enough time to request permission to use the material, and cumulative effect – copied for one course and limited to one class term.
Public domain – public ownership of writings, documents, or publications that are not protected by copyright or in which the copyright has expired.

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