CSP 6010 Midterm

Alice Freeman Palmer


Was professor and becomes 1st female President and 1st President of Wellesly College; staunch advocate of women’s higher education; “College education prepares women for civic leadership as well as self-knowledge and self-respect.”; She becomes founding Dean of Women at University of Chicago; done in an effort to court women to an intellectually stimulating and social environment; “feminization” of the university; resigned after 3 years

Marion Talbot (1858-1948)
Dean of Women at University of Chicago: supervised majority of aspects of undergrad and grad student women’s lives; served as Director of American Association of University Women; idea of equal opportunity of the expanding role of women in academic life: fought against admin when women were not given equal opportunity; wanted an environment for personal self-confidence and the best education
LeBaron Russell Briggs
First ever Dean of Men from 1891-1902 at Harvard College: foundation for student affairs profession; became President of Radcliffe from 1902-1923; Made advancements for women in education but also believed in coeducation- women should complete against men; Briggs believed in defined gender roles; “contagion of the unwomanly”
Gott v. Berea College (1913)
Berea College prohibited students from going to local restaurants (“drinking”); Gott, a business owner, filed suit against Berea for damages and loss of customers; Students who continued to visit the establishment were dismissed; Kentucky Board of Appeal ruled in favor of Berea; Solidified use of in loco parentis (in place of a parent) in American colleges
National Association of Deans of Women (1917)
Professional organization of the women advisers in universities, colleges and high schools; dean as the key person in secruing the education of young women; collected and published academic research from deans of women in Yearbook; much of today’s student affairs practices are founded on the work of deans of women; resource for DOW to talk about and get training for issues: residential life, control of social life; advocated for deans as non-faculty positions and for them to hold degrees
National Association of Deans and Advisors of Men (1919)
Founded under the title of Conference of Deans and Advisors of Men; NADAM was used from 1929-1951, when it became NASPA
Lucy Diggs Slowe (1885-1937)

First Dean of Women at Howard University; started Women Students’ League: all female students were automatically members and the purpose was to develop leadership; one of founders of the first African American sorority; first African American to win a major sports title (American Tennis Association’s first tournament)

Founded: National Association of College Women and Association of Advisors to Women in Colored Schools

Esther Lloyd Jones
Elected President of ACPA in 1935; dissertation on Student Personnel Work; for the betterment of the ACPA she wanted to focus on the developmental point of view and not just the institutional level exclusively; helped build and educate others on the student personnel field through different books and articles
Walter Dill Scott
Applied psychology to business and advertising; APA President; President of Northwestern University; Studied the social benefits from the practical application of psychology; Installed a Personnel System: designed to promote “the systematic consideration of the individual, for the sake of the individual, and by specialists in the field.”; created counseling systems through this such as Financial Aid, Admissions, Housing, etc.
Personnel Movement
Concept of holistic education and connections between classroom and extracurricular activities; give students guidance through courses, vocation; encourage positive character development so students can be well-rounded citizens; during this time many of the student affairs practices we see today became more common with funded student activities and student gov’t associations; let to rise of the dean
National Association of Appointment Secretaries (NAAS)
1923: Meeting of the National Association of Women Deans and appointment secretaries wanted their own organization; NAAS created in 1924 with 9 members; Adopted the name American College Personnel Association in 1931 (ACPA); purposes: establishing sections within organization with different kinds of personnel work, focus on promotion and devlopment of people engaged in personnel responsibilities at the college level
G.I. Bill (Serviceman’s Readjustment Act)
Made college accesible for more than 2 million veterans in the 10 years after WWI; more civically engaged citizens; increased college student numbers in the 40’s and 50’s; allows those in the service and women the opportunity to resume their education after discharge; eases the transition from military to higher education
NASPA National Association of Student Affairs Professionals

1919: ADAM (Association of Deans and Advisers of Men)

1951: Name changed to NASPA

Association for administrators who see their roles broadly as part of university leadership teams; Early purpose to “discuss and study the most effective methods of aiding students in their intellectual, social, moral and personal development; today there are 13,000 members

American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA)
In response to increasing interest in the personnel movement, professional associations were formed to provide a venue for discussion, research, prof development; 1952: APGA established from a combination of organizations (GCT (Guidance and Counselor Trainers, etc); ACPA was instrumental in APGA’s founding but then disaffiliated in 1991
Nevitt Sanford
Scholar who had been fired from UC Berkeley in 1950 for refusing to sign a loyalty oath; this was later overturned by the courts and he was reinstated; published his theory of Challenge and Support in 1962; said that students must be challenged, but they must also receive adequate support to overcome these challenges; focused on balance of challenge and support

Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain

Ezell Blair, Jr., David Richmond

Involved in the Woolworth Sit-In on February 1, 1960 when the 4 freshmen from all-black North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College went into a Woolworth five-and-dime to order coffee at the “whites only” lunch counter. Employees refused to serve them. Began sit-in that grew to include 1,000 others; Continued for six months; July 26th served black customers; Significant due to civil rights movement (racel equality) but also touched higher education because college students participated in nonviolent protests
Mario Savio (1960’s)
Student at UC Berkeley; seen as the leader of the “free speech” demonstration there in 1964; free speech movement credited with creation of “sit-in”; Led a huge sit-in in 1964 leading to more than 800 arrests; investigated by FBI because though free speech movement was evidence of communists disrupting U.S. campuses; Later in life was a CA Senator under “Peace and Freedom” Party; He was representative of the activist culture that swept across America and strained traditional university model
Dixon v. Alabama State Board of Education

5th circuit federal court case decision of 1961

6 students were expelled from Alabama State College for their participation in civil rights demonstrations; students were not given any due process; raised questions as to the rights of students and how much authority universities could have over students’ lives; considered by some to be the legal end to in loco parentis

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
American student organization during the 1960’s famous for radical protests and activism revolving around the Vietnam War; Founded in 1959; branched off from the League for Industrial Democracy, becoming part of the New Left movement; involved in the civil rights movement; President Robert Haber and Tom Hayden came together to write the SDA manifesto called “Port Huron Statement.” First the group was for equality and peace, but then became more militant; began protests and rallies on campuses; split off into separate factions, most famous being the “Weathermen” or “Weather Undergroud” which used violent and terrorist tactics in protesting; eventually dissolved in mid-1970’s
Casey Hayden

Real name was Sandra Carson; activist for social change during Civil Rights Era; focused on stopping racism; rode with 8 “Freedom Riders” in 1961, was the only one not arrested; wrote Sex and Caste with Mary ing to argue that women were not respected in Civil Rights Movement; great impact in launching feminist movement; part of SDS

Importance to profession: utilization of the college environment to demonstrate public unrest and support civil rights movement; helped the fight that opened the college cmapus to a more diverse population, creating the need for more support from student affairs practitioners

Freedom Summer
Mississippi based campaign started in 1964; focused on getting more black voters within the state; pulled white volunteers from around the country; efforts were met with violence from other groups (KKK); 10 month project included Freedom Houses, Freedom Schools = underfunded and victim to arson, vandalism
Student Homophile League

Founded by Stephen Donaldson, an openly bisexual student, at Columbia University in 1965; functioned as an underground organization for two years; officially granted a charter in 1967 by recruiting prominent student leaders to be public liasons in order to maintain member anonymity; First official college gay rights advocacy group

Second chapter formed at Cornell and after the Stonewall riots, aligned with SDS which allowed increased visibility and awareness of LGBT issues

1970: Gay Liberation Front

Demonstrated growing diversity and tolerance on campuses; brought awareness to the needs of an isolated group in college, importance of SA practitioners to support these students

Joint Statement on the Rights and Freedoms of Students
Written in 1967; was jointly created by American Association of University Professors, United States National Student Association, Association of American Colleges, NASPA, and the National Association of Women Deans and Counselors; spelled out what rights and freedoms students should universally enjoy; focused heavily on the right of students to voice their opinions and be active in society
The Student in Higher Education (Hazen Foundation, 1968)

Committee called for universities to take responsibility for the development of their students (first time ever)

Encouraged idea that higher education professionals should be utilizing theories of human development; asked universities to focus special attention on first-year students; wanted colleges to recognize the diversity in the student body; called attention to the role of college in human development; focused on role of SA practitioners to develop students; brought attention to role that study of behavioral sciences should have

Phillip Lafayette Gibbs & James Earl Green
Two fatally wounded victims of the Jackson State University shooting in May 1970; University next to Lynch street, a hotspot for racially spurred harassment caused by white drivers; students began to riot in result of shootings of civil rights activist Charles Evers and his wife; 75 police officers with weapons; students thew bottles and bricks; police began shooting for 30 sec causing mass hysteria and 12 wounded students; Debate broke out about who was to blame; Nixon put together a Commission on Campus Unrest due to shootings at Kent State and Jackson; local media coverage was biased and racist; no one was ever convicted; closed Lynch Street; university and college campuses reflected unrest of country due to civil rights movement
“Tin Soldiers and Nixon Coming” song
Song by Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young referring to the Kent State shootings; 1970; students had staged numerous protests that got out of hand; National Guard called in to control the situation; National Guard and Student Protestors clashed and NG opened fire killing 4 students and injuring 9. Remains a mystery as to why the guard opened fire; raised questions on the rights of students to protest on campus and how the university should deal with students when things get out of hand
Student Development in Tomorrow’s Education: Return to the Academy
Monograph published by Robert Brown in 1972: analysis and reflection piece; active member in the ACPA and asked to write this monograph for the convention that year; look at the current student affairs admin and asked them to “hold up the mirror” as far as reflecting on the current picture; he emphasized the holistic importance of unified college experience while looking at the past, present and future in regard to Student Development
Student Development Model for Student Affairs in Tomorrow’s Higher Education

ACPA document, highlighting the planned response to expected changes in higher ed produced in 1972; concerns the whole student combining academics and non-academics in development; changes student affairs from reactive to proactive; develops a competency-based approach to staffing, goal setting, assessment and student development strategies

CAS Standards (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education)
Founded in 1979; purposes are to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development; a consortium of professional associations; promulgate standards and guidelines; framework and observable outcomes; creates Book of Professional Standards
COSPA (Council of Student Personnel Associations)
Council covened to review professional preparation in CSP work; “keystones” for the profession: service in student development
A Perspective on Student Affairs (NASPA 1987)
Issued by NASPA on the 50th Anniversary of SPPV; historical overview, assumptions and beliefs of SA professionals; academic mission of institution is preeminent; student involvement only enhances learning; effective citizens; each student is responsible for their own lives; SA professionals to be experts on students and their environments; support explain values, mission and policies, advance institutional values
Gerald Saddlemire


Faculty of CSP program at BGSU in 1969; received numerous research grants, published five books, etc. Received many awards including two of the most prestigious: NASPA awarded him the Robert H. Shaffer Award for Academic Excellence as a Graduate Faculty Member and ACPA presented him with its Professional Service Award; many scholarship exist in his honor today and the Student Service Building was dedicated to him in 1995

The Student Learning Imperative: Implications for Student Affairs
First published in 1994 by the ACPA; student affairs professionals serve a role as educators: learning-oriented: student learning and personal development; collaboration with faculty, administrators, students; enhance learning through educational and purposeful activities
Principles of Good Practice for Student Affairs
Written by a team of professionals representing both NASPA and ACPA; co-chaired by Gregory Blimling and Elizabeth Whitt; developed in response to challenges facing student affairs including: new technologies, changing student demographics, demands for greater accountability, concerns about rising costs; Outlined 7 principles intended to guide SA practices to ensure effective learning and to help professionals “achieve the educational missions” of their institutions; utilized info from The Student Learning Imperative and Chickering; Gregory Blimling worked at BGSU
Powerful Partnerships: A Shared Responsibility for Learning
Report written by ACPA, NASPA and American Association of Higher Education (AAHE) in 1998 about the need for collaboration between academic and student affairs professionals; argued this partnership would allow for more enhanced learning experience for students; developed 10 principles that explored environmental aspects that would result in successful learning for students; emphasized outcomes based on research;
Grutter & Gratz

Supreme court cases against the University of Michigan regarding affirmative action admissions policies (2003); Grutter – law school admissions, Gratz – undergraduate

Both cases showed applicants be granted more “points” for admission becase they belong to under-represented group: promote institutional diversity

Grutter: Supreme Court tuled that race can be an admission factor to promote diversity

Gratz: unconstitutional because the process violated the Equal Protection Clause; Conclusion: Affirmative action programs are constitutional if individual evaluation considers race as one of many factors in order to achieve the goal of diversity


Learning Reconsidered
Published by ACPA and NASPA in 2004; learning outcomes fundamental to the development of intentional, life long learners; outcomes: become empowered through the development of skills, take responsibility for learning and participation in the civic processes of our democracy, must become informed about conditions that affect their lives in the US and as citizens of many wider communities; suports integration of higher education resources in order to develop and educate whole person
NASPA-ACPA Consolidation
In 2009, a joint committee between NASPA and ACPA recommended a union; 2 years of research and feedback; increased communication and networking, decrease in redundancies and expenses, strongest possible leadership; opponents feared it would marginalize individual’s voices, complicate, limit leadership opportunities, dissolve individual associations cultures; merge did not occur: failed to achieve a 2/3 majority vote from each association; ACPA voted 81% in favor, NASPA 62%
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward

Summer of 1819; newly elected governor of New Hampshire sought to take control of the college’s charter from its Federalist trustees in order to replace the board with elected Republican members; public vs. private; question: does the state have the right to dictate the operations of the college? Ruled that legislature has no role. Deciding factor = charter

Outcomes: limits control of state gov’t, strengthened contract clause of constitution, established legitmacy of private sector, created need for public sector, ensured higher ed would be primarily secular in nature

Alexander Lucius Twilight
First African-American to earn a bachelor’s degree, graduating from Middlebury College in 1823
Yale Report of 1828
A document written by the faculty of Yale College in 1828. Staunch defense of the classical curriculum: ancient Greek and Latin languages; a highly-influential report that set back curriculum reforms for decades; before this colleges were moving toward more open, elective course of study; conservative approach to higher education
Characteristics of the Germanic Model of Higher Education
Urban; organized around faculties, secular in nature, stressed research and the importance of science, intended to be national in scope; example: Johns Hopkins University in Maryland
Mary Jane Patterson
First African American woman graduate from Oberlin College in 1862
Morrill Act of 1862
Provided land for A & Ms; Populist movement: higher education for all; legitmacy of vocational education; provided another model of higher ed
The English Collegiate Model
residential, rural, secretarian, classical curriculum, prepared young men for the ministry and public service, faculty maintained rigid control
Morrill Act of 1890
17 more states created universities for African Americans; “Separate but equal” permitted by Plessy vs. Ferguson in 1896; State land-grant schools had to admit African Americans or build separate ones for them

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