CSET Multiple Subject Subtest 3: Human Development

Kohlberg’s Stages of Morality
Kohlberg Stage 1

Pre-Conventional Level 1 & 2

1. Obedience and punishment orientation
(How can I avoid punishment?)

2. Self-interest orientation

(What’s in it for me?)
(Paying for a benefit)

Do the right thing because I get a reward.

Kohlberg’s Stage 2

Conventional Level 3 & 4

3. Interpersonal accord and conformity

(Social norms)
(The good boy/girl attitude)
4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation

(Law and order morality)

Do the right thing because I care what others think.

Kohlberg’s Stage 3

Post-Conventional Level 5 & 6

5. Social contract orientation
6. Universal ethical principles

(Principled conscience)

Do it because it is the right thing to do.

Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory




Concrete Operational

Formal Operational

From birth to development of language
0 – 2 years
Learn about the world through physical interaction with objects, starting with self. Input is through senses.
Symbolic understanding ends this stage.
Object permanence in developed.
From language acquisition to conservation.
Age 2 – 7 years
Ego-centric. Imaginative play. Parallel play. Symbolic thinking.
By end, child sees other people’s points of view. (Mountain experiment)
Understanding of Conservation ends this stage.
Concrete Operational
From conservation to
Ages 8 – 11
Capable of performing a variety of mental operations (rules) and thoughts using concrete concepts.
Formal Operational
Theoretical, hypothetical and counter-factual thinking.
Abstract logic and reasoning.
Strategy and planning become possible.
Applied knowledge.
The basic building block of intelligent behavior – a way of organizing, classifying, knowledge.
Cat: tail, 4 legs, pointy ears, meow.
Dog: “,”,”, ruff.
a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations.
When a child’s existing schemas are capable of explaining what it can perceive around it, it is said to be in a state of equilibrium, i.e. a state of cognitive (i.e. mental) balance.
Disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation).
Equilibration is the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation).
Zone of Proximal Development

A skill that a student can do with guidance.
Not too easy and not too difficult.
What a child can do in cooperation today, she can do alone tomorrow.”

conservation of numbers
Quantity does not change with physical rearrangement.
Not dependent on spacial relations
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
8 stages of development

Each stage is characterized by a different psychological crisis that has to be resolved by the individual before they can move on to the next stage.
Problems develop is stages are not reached.

Stage 1

trust / mistrust
Can I trust the world?
Are basic needs being met?/not met?
ages 0 – 2

Stage 2

autonomy / shame & doubt
Is it okay to be me?
independence ages 2 – 4

Stage 3

initiative / guilt
Is it okay for me to do, move & act?
age 4 – 5

Stage 4

Industry / Inferiority
Can I make it in the world of people and things?
Age 5 – 13


Stage 5


Identity / Role confusion
Who am I?
Who can I be?
Age 13 – 19


Stage 6


Intimacy v.s. isolation
Can I love?
age 20 – 39


Stge 7


generativity / despair
Can I make life count?

age 40 – 64


Stage 8


ego integrity / despair

Is it okay to have been me?
age 65 ——>

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