CSET 2012 Science

liquefaction of air can be accomplished by…
changing temp or pressure, or both.
atomic # of an element is…
# of protons (top of box), weight is # directly below symbol
a nuclear reactor that powers an electric generating plant relies on
fission: releases energy when a heavy nucleus splits into smaller fragments
in nuclear fusion
tremendous energy is released when very light nuclei unite w/heavier nuclei (hydrogen bombs & stars)
Which characteristic of a wave must change in order to affect the pitch of a sound?
frequency

(CREST is top of hill, PITCH depends on how fast the particles of a mediu vibrate, AMPLITUDE is its height, distance between its resting position and its crest, WAVELENGTH is distance btwn 2 consecutive points)

temperature of liquid (boiling soup)
cannot be higher than its boiling point
third class lever
baseball bat

-(fulcrum is on the end, input force is in middle, output (resistance) is at top)

2nd class lever
fulcrum is at end, output is in middle, input at other end (wheelbarrows, strollers, bottle openers)
1st class lever
fulcrum in middle (seesaws, scissors, pliers)
raw materials of photosynthesis
CO2 & H2O
ozone depletions is NOT
directly related to greenhouse effect
phototropism
movement of plant in a reaction to a stimulus (towards sunlight)
gas planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune have diameters far larger than Earth’s have greater masses (closes weight to weight on Earth)
stars with highest surface temp appear blue, while stars with the lowest suface appear…
RED (giant star Betelgeuse)
soft tissues avoid decomposition and survive as a fossil when
in lake-bottom mud since there is no oxygen there
logical global climatic consequence of cataclysmic volcanic eruptions:
a decline in sun’s energy that reaches the earth, resulting in lower global temps.
Relationships of Sun, moon, Earth during a NEAP TIDE
Half Shaded Earth on top next to empty larger Sun with empty small moon below earth
solar eclipse
moon in between Earth and Sun
lunar eclipse
half shaded Earth btwn Sun and small moon on shaded side
Physical Properties
color form, electrical conductivity, density
Density –
Mass/Volume
deposition vs sublimation
gas into solid/solid into gas
chemical reactions
show the # of molecules of formula units of reactants and products
chemical elements
composed of only one atom and cannot be separated in different substances except in some instances by radioactive decay or by nuclear reactions.
pH
measure of basicity of a solution
pH of pure water
7, Celsius
Velocity
distance over change in time
Motion
Position-Acceleration-Velocity (PAV)
acceleration
change of distance and change in time/rate of change of velocity with time
Newton’s 1st Law of Motion
body at rest stays at rest
Newton’s 2nd Law
more force-more acceleration
Newton’s 3rd Law
every action has a reaction
Screws
-inclined planes
-ratio of threading determines mechanical advantage
-rotates outward, the weight increases
Colors Travel:
c = 186,000 miles/second = 3*10 (8th) meters/second
longest wavelengths
longwave/shortwave radio, TV, microwaves, radar, infrared, visible light (red, orange-increasing in wavelength)
shortest wavelengths
ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays, green, blue, violet
Conversion for Temp
c=5/9(F-32)

f=9/5C+32

renewable resources
wood, hydroelectricity, , solar hot water heating, geothermal, wind, solar, ocean.
nonrenewable
fossil fuels, coal, petroleum, natural gas.
Plant Groups (AAFFG)
algae, angiosperms (seeds, flowers), fungi (no chlorophyll), ferns, gymnosperms (seeds)
Cell Nucleus
chromosome, nucleolus, nuclear membrane
cytoplasm
centrosome, ribosomes, Golgi body, vacuole, mitochondrion (ATP-powerhouse, growth, death, signaling, differentation))
parts of cell
cytoplasm, nucleus, membrane
carbs-sugars
fats-glycerol & fatty acids
protein-amino acids
-ptyalin from saliva
-bile & lipase (pancreas)

saliva-stomach-small-defecation

pulmonary circulation

systemic circulation

loop through lungs to get oxygenated

loop rest of body to provide O2

plasma
dissolves waste, nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and enzymes
hindbrain
cerebellum, medulla-vital functions unconsciously
cerebrum
largest-receives info from senses & makes decisions
parts of eye
outer (muscle, cornea, aqueous chamber, iris)
inner (lens, vitreous body)
back (sclera, retina, optic nerve)
parts of brain (8)

(2C, 4 Lobes (O/P), 1M, 1Stem)

R (f)-L(B):

-cerebrum, frontal lobe, temporal, brain stem, medulla (neck), cerebellum, occipital lobe, parietal lobe

Life Cycle of Frog
egg-hatch Tadpole-metamorphosis transitioning into adult form, lose their gills, develop hind and front legs, lungs, stay in water or take land
Butterfly life cycle
egg embryonic stage few weeks-larva feeding stage growing hormones, wanders for pupation site under leaf-Pupa chrysalis cocoon stage molting, adult imago stage IMAGO, wings need to unfold before fly
asexual reproduction
archaea, bacteria, protists (fungi)
Reproductive Parts of Plant
Petal, Stamen (male), Pistil (female)Sepals, Receptacle (top-bottom)
meiosis (3)

(chromosome Pairs in Diploid Cell>Meiotic Division>Haploid Gametes (2))

reductional division in which # of chromosomes are split in half-forming gametes in animals
mitosis (5, IPMAT)
cell division of parent cell’s genome into two daughter cells

Interphase 1, Prophase 2, Metaphase 3, Anaphase 4, Telophase 5

The Origin of the Species (evolution)
-Survival of the fittest
-natural selection
-Evolution of species over time
-Genetic variation through geographic isolation
phylogenetics
-compare protein amino acid or nucleotide sequence homology to infer taxonomy and evolutionary distances among organisms. Studying fossils is better to specifically pinpoint where and when.
5 dwarf planets
Ceres, Pluto, Makemake, Haumea, Eris
Solar System (6 parts)
Terrestrial Inner Planets with Sn in Center, Earh & Moon, Asteroid Belt, Giant Planet Zone, Kuiper Belt (scattered discs, past Neptune-short-period comets), Dwarf Planet Zone

-Ort cloud (long-period comets)

-comets show perceptible coma while asteroids don’t

Earth distance from sun is

Moon distance from Earth is

-91.5-94.5 million miles

-237,000 miles

Phases of Moon (8)

waxing (4)-full (1)-waning (3)
NM, WC, FQ, WG> FM-> WG, LQ, WC

-new moon
-waxing crescent
-first quarter
-axing gibbous
-full moon
-waning gibbous
-last quarter
-waning crescent
solar eclipse
Earth (FQ), little moon (same), Big sun (photosphere)than both

*Sun Mass is 300,000 times size of Earth

Sun’s atmosphere
visible surface (photosphere), atmosphere (inner chromosphere, outer corona, glowing halo (only visible during total eclipse)
Soil Profile (4)
Top to Bottom:

-sand rich in dark organic matter
-clay and sand
-sand and rock fragments
-unweathered rock (bedrock)

Rain Shadow (mountain image-L to R, 5)
prevailing winds, warm moist air, rising air cools & condenses, dry air advances, rain shadow
strata
layers of sediment deposited in a quiet environment (lakes, deltas, mouths of rivers, beaches, sandbars, marine environment)
geological Time Scale (era)
-Cenozoic (mammals)
-Mesozoic (Reptiles)
-Paleozoic (invertebrates)
-Precambrian (none)
5 geologies

(PGPSU)

-palentology (fossils)
-geomorphology (landforms)
-petrology (rocks)
-stratigraphy (layered rocks)
-uniformitatian )using now to explore past)
lunar eclipse
fully dark moon, half earth (little bigger), biggest empty sun
winter equinox

vernal equinox

summer solstice

equator is diagonal starting on left

equator is straight middle

equator is diagonal down starting on left

sedimentary rock
limestone, chalk, dolostone, sandstone, conglomerate formed from weathering, transportation of sediments, to the place of deposition
igneous rocks
(plutonic) gabbro, granite, (volcanic) basalt, rhyolite
metamorphic rocks
slate, marble, quartzite, schist, gneiss
minerals
orthoclase and plagioclase (earth’s crust), quartz, olivine, augite
earth’s crust (bottom to top)
-inner core (dense mass)
-outer core liquid)
-mantle (largest)
-upper mantle (largest)
-crust (us)
Hydrologic cycle
-Cloud (wind) at top
-condensation
-precipitation
-Runoff into rivers/lakes (groundwater; underneath is Percolation) to ocean
-Evaporation up from ocean

*plants that intercept precipitation= canopy interception

troposphere
where all our weather occurs
differential heating
land and sea breezes
upslope wind

peaks, long cince cooled, transport air into the valley in a process that is partly gravitational and partly convective

valley breeze

mountain breeze

el nino (warm) and nina (cold)
sea surface temps anomalies of magnitude reater than 0.5 celcius
Tides (sun only produces 46% as much as moon):

semidiurnal (most)

diurnal

maximum tide range

minimum tide

two high waters and two low waters each day

one tidal cycle per day

spring tide

neaps

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