Special Education Assessment

Mental Retardation
Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning; deficits in adaptive behavior, manifesting during developmental period; adversely affect child’s educational performance
Assessment
Gathering relevant information in making decisions regarding appropriate goals, objectives, teaching strategies, and placement.
Assessment Process: Collection
The process of tracing and gathering information from the many sources of background information on a child such as school records, observation, parent intakes, and teacher reports
Assessment Process: Analysis
The processing and understanding of patterns in a child’s educational, social, developmental, environmental, medical development, in order to determine areas of strength and weakness
Assessment Process: Evaluation
The evaluation of a child’s academic, intellectual, psychological, emotional, perceptual language, cognitive, and medical development in order to determine areas of strength and weakness
Assessment Process: Determination
the determination of the presence of a suspected disability using knowledge of the criteria that constitute each category
Assessment Process: Recommendation
The recommendations concerning educational placement and program that need to be made to the school, teachers, and parents
Members of a Multidisciplinary Team
School Psychologist, School Nurse, Classroom Teacher, School Social Worker, Special Education Teacher, Educational Diagnostician, Physical Therapist, Behavioral Consultant, Speech/Language Clinician, Audiologist, Occupational Therapist, Guidance Counselor, Parents
The Multidisciplinary Team
To bring together many disciplines and perspectives; The role is to work as a single unit in determining the possible cause, contributing behavioral factors, educational status, prognosis, and recommendations for students with a suspected disability
Prereferral strategies
Before Individualized evaluation teacher meets with team to discuss the nature of problem and what possible modifications to instruction or classroom might be made.
Child Study Team
Teacher, Principal, School Psychologist, Special Education Teacher, Nurse, Social Worker, Speech/Language clinician, Guidance Counselor. Child is not the problem but maybe it is another variable.
Norm Referenced Tests
Not interpreted according to an absolute standard or criterion; rather, according to how the student’s performance compares with that of a group
Standardized Tests
Tests with detailed procedures for administration, timing, scoring, and interpretation that must be followed for reliable and valid results
Criterion Referenced Tests
Tests that are scored according to a standard, criterion, that represents a level of mastery.
Portfolio
Purposeful collection of student works that exhibits the students efforts, progress, and achievement
Showcase Portfolio
Houses only the students best work and generally does not include works in progress. The student manages the portfolio and decides what to put in it.
Portfolio Assessment
Process of collecting a student’s work to examine efforts, progress, and achievements
Mode
The score in a distribution that most frequently occurs
Mean
The arithmetic average of a distribution; derived by adding up the scores and dividing by the number of scores
Median
The middle score in a distribution; the score that separates the top half from the bottom half
Range
difference between high and low scores in a distribution
Correlation Coefficient
Numerical value that expresses the degree of relationship between two variables
Correlation
The relationship between two variables
Nominal Scale of Measurement
Categorical Data. Species of birds, social security numbers, phone numbers; scores represent names weighed equally
Ordinal Scales of Measurement
rank order system; 1st, 2nd, 3rd. In schools, class rank is an example.
Interval Scales of Measurement
equal differences in scores represent equal differences in amount of the property measured; a person with an IQ of 100 is NOT twice as smart as one with an IQ of 50
Ratio Scale of Measurement
Like an Interval scale with additional property of zero; 15 is 3 times more 5. 300 is 6 times more than 50.
Normal Curve
Bell Curve. 68% will be within 85 to 115 with 100 being the median. Average Standard Deviations are 15.
Raw Score
Number or correctly answered items on a test that have not been weighted, transformed, manipulated
Calculation of Age
Subtraction is started from right with days borrowing months(30 days), and months borrowing years(12 months) when necessary
Percentile Rank
percentage of scores that occur at or below a certain score. 75% means that a person performed as well or better than 75% of the class
Standard Score
A score that has been transformed to fit a normal curve with a mean of 100 and Standard Deviations of 15
Age Equivalent
A general score used to compare the performance of children at the same age with one another
Grade Equivalent
general score used to compare the performance of children in the same grade with one another
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Kansas (347 US 483) 1954.
1954. Segregation ruled unconstitutional because of the 14th Amendment. Brown set the precedent for future discrimination cases including special needs students
Larry P. v Riles (1984)
The use of IQ tests to place Black students in Special Education as mentally retarded was found to be discriminatory because 1)Measure achievement not ability 2)bell curve assumption 3)lead to more labeling of black students than white students
Section 504
to prevent discrimination individuals with disabilities in programs that receive federal funds. In schools, children must be allowed in equal opportunity in all activities.
EAHCA (EHA) PL94-142
All children have to be provided a FAPE in the LRE. Testing must have parental consent, IEP, and no one assessment can determine eligibility
Perkins Act or Vocational Education Act(1984)
Federal funds to support vocational education. To improve access to special populations, LEP, disadvantaged, disability. Requires vocational education for students with disabilities.
Buckley Amendment (FERPA) PL 93-380
Schools cannot release info without written parental consent.Parents have right to inspect child’s files. Parents can request to have misleading info amended. annual notice of rights must be given. Parents have right to explanation of records.
IDEA (1990) Reauthorization of PL94-142 EAHCA or EHA
Added: TBI, autism, mandated transition services, replaced handicapped with disability. Timely evaluations and early intervention services required.
IDEA 97
Strengthened LRE mandate, obligatins of other agencies, parents roles to allow to see all records, added related services, Manifestation Determination, birth to 5 years for at risk children
ADA
Civil rights based on Sec 504. Protects students with disabilities against discrimination. Schools must be accessible to all.

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