Constructivist and Sociocultural Perspectives in Education

The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
Is the entire instructional cycle during which students learn new skills and knowledge and gradually assume increased responsibility for this learning.
Direct Explanation
Is an approach to teaching strategies that employs direct instruction, cognitive modeling, and a gradual release of responsibility.
Cognitive Modeling
Teachers use explicit instructional talk to reveal their thought processes as they perform the tasks that students will be asked to perform.
Scaffolding
Is “a process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task, or achieve a goal which would be beyond his unassisted efforts.”
Cooperative Learning
The instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning.
The Zone of Proximal Development
The social nature of learning and the fact that learning is very much a social phenomenon; in fact, we acquire much of what we learn in our social interchanges with others.
Higher Order Thinking
The idea is that some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others.

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