A category used to group similar objects, events, ideas, or people
The best or most common representation of a certain category or class, often culturally based
Invalid concepts that students construct using their experiences, expectations, beliefs, and emotions
Positive transfer
When using what was learned in the past facilitates learning something new or solving a new problem
Negative transfer
When using what was learned in the past hinders new learning or problem-solving
Individual Constructivism
A type of constructivism that focuses on how individuals construct knowledge in their minds
Discovery learning
Finding a solution to a problem or an explanation for a phenomenon rather than simply memorizing rules and explanations
Social Constructivism
A type of constructivism where learners share individual perspectives with others to construct understandings together
Community of learners
A method in which students not only co-construct knowledge but also work together in the design of their learning environment and curriculum
Spiral Organization
Curriculum that revisits the same topic with added complexity

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