Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Strategies
Are “conscious and flexible plans that readers apply and adopt to a variety of texts and tasks.”
Using Prior Knowledge
When readers purposely bring to consciousness what they already know relating that knowledge to the text, they put a set of schemata into place, establishing a framework for the new information they will encounter.
Asking and Answering Questions
When the reader poses questions prior to reading a selection or as he is reading the selection and then attempts to answer the questions while reading, he virtually guarantees that reading will be an active process.
Making Inferences
Readers can infer meanings by using information from the text and their existing knowledge of the world to fill in bits of information that are not explicitly stated in the text.
Determining What Is Important
Using this strategy requires that readers understand what they have read and make judgments about what is and is not important.
Summarizing
Requires students to first determine what is important and then condense it in their own words.
Dealing with Graphic Information
Readers can often improve comprehension by giving conscious attention to the visual information supplied by the author.
Imaging and Creating Graphic Representations
Some readers can improve their comprehension by creating visual representations of text, either in their minds or on paper. One kind of image occurs when readers visualize people, events, and places, usually with narrative material. Another kind of imaging consists of visually organizing key ideas in a text to graphically display their relationship, used most frequently with expository text.
Being Metacognitive
They understand themselves as readers, the reading tasks they face, and the strategies they can employ in completing these tasks.
Reciprocal Teaching
Is a procedure in which students and a teacher work together to improve students’ understanding of complex informational texts and at the same time improve students’ general ability to monitor their comprehension and learn from such texts.

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