Components of Effective Reading Instruction

Phonemic awareness
Is the insight that spoken words are composed of somewhat separable sounds—sounds that can be played with, rearranged, alliterated, and even used to create alternative language.
Phonics
Is an umbrella term for instruction about letter-sound correspondences.
Fluency
Is the ability to read rapidly smoothly without many errors, and with appropriate expression.
Vocabulary
Refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively.
Comprehension Strategies
Are “conscious and flexible plans that readers apply and adapt to a variety of texts and tasks.”
Independent Reading
Is a term used in educational settings, where students are involved in choosing and reading material (fiction books, non-fiction, magazine, other media) for their independent consumption and enjoyment.
Reader-response 
Focuses on the reader and his or her experience of a literary work.
Higher-Order Thinking
The idea is that some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others.
Scaffolding
Is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals.

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