Competency 38 Earth and Space Science

The ________ has an atmosphere, water, and much higher gravity.
layers of the Earth
The crust, mantle, inner and outer cores are classified as…

this is the outer layer of the earth

all life on earth live here and it is thin and solid

the mantle
the layer of earth that contains rock and metal, creates magma and lava
the hydrosphere

  • it is the part of the earth’s surface that is water
  • covers 75% of the earth
  • has groundwater like Edwards Aquifer
  • consists of all the oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, and glaciers


  • the solid surface of the earth
  • contains crust, continents, ocean floors, rocks, soil, and minerals

how the earth’s surface is changed
weathering, erosion, plate tectonics, volcanoes, earthquakes, and glaciers are all ways of…

  • the breaking up of rocks into smaller pieces
  • can be physical or chemical

this is known as…

physical weathering

  • it breaks rocks apart but does not change their substance
  • may be caused by freezing water, waves, wind, plant roots

what type of weathering is this?

chemical weathering
this type of weathering can form  caves…

  • the moving of weathered rock and soil
  • flowing water is the main cause
  • the wind carries sand, creating sand dunes

divergent boundary
plates moving apart is known as…
plate tectonics

  • the theory that earth’s surface is broken into plates that move
  • have caused earthquakes, formed mountains, and erupted volcanoes

convergent boundary with a continental and oceanic plate
when one plate moves under another, forming volcanoes and earthquakes
convergent boundary with 2 continental plates
has 2 plates that do not sink; causes mountain ranges to form
this pollution is caused by the combustion of fossil fuels by power plants and automobile exhaust
Natural Bridge Caverns
chemical weathering created the…
atmosphere layers

  • troposphere
  • stratosphere
  • mesosphere
  • thermosphere
  • exosphere

our weather occurs here and is 1/2 of earth’s atmosphere
the layer of atmosphere where aircrafts fly
the layer of the atmosphere where the space shuttle orbits
carbon-dioxide/oxygen cycle
this cycle produces oxygen for us to breathe
ozone levels in our atmosphere
this is caused by smog and is poisonous to inhale

  • a gas that is a form of oxygen
  • protects against harmful ultraviolent radiation in the upper atmosphere

________ in the lower atmosphere can be dangerous because the sun acts with burning fossil fuel and vehicle emissions, making it hard to breathe and provides no photosynthesis for plants
continential drift

  • the theory of plate tectonics by German Scientist alfred Weneger
  • theory that all continents were once 1 large continent but later broke apart

surface of the earth
this can be changed by forces such as earthquakes and glacier movement

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