Competency 2 Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

phoneme blending

putting individual sounds together to make a word

example: /k/ /u/ /p/ = cup

Formally assessing phonemic awareness

  1. Phonemic segmentation test
  2. Phoneme manipulation test
  3. Blending test
  4. Phoneme Splitting Test
  5. Oddity Test

are all examples of formally assessing what?


/sh/ /a/ /p/

 how many phonemes (sounds) are in the word “shape”
Phonemic awareness

  • Invented spelling
  • Ability to hear rhyming words
  • Ability to hear initial and final sounds
  • Segmenting words into individual phonemes (sound)
  • Knowing nursery rhymes

are all ways to informally assess what?


/r/ /i/ /s/ /k/

How many phonemes (sounds) are in the word “risk”
Minimal pairs

 words that differ in only one sound

example: cat and bat or pail and bail


/t/ /o/

 how many sounds are in the word “toe”
Isolate sounds

“What is the first sound in the word boy?”

is a type of question that teaches the child how to what?

 Ways to teach phonemic awareness

  • fun oral activities
  • small groups
  • explicit and incidental instruction
  • multiple opportunities to read and re-read
  • Big Books and invented spelling activities

are all ways to teach what?

Incidental Instruction

This type of phonemic awareness instruction involves children playing with words in games and song

Phoneme Segmentation

Breaking a word into individual phonemes (sounds)

tapping out the number of phonemes (sounds) heard in a word


Word families

 What teaches patterns in words?

Common Rimes or

Common Word Families

at: mat, fat, cat

ike: like, bike

ate: skate, late, rate

op: hop, stop, mop

ill: bill, hill, fill, mill

ay: pay, stay, way


are all known as what?

Phonological and phonemic awareness activities

Identifying and working with:

  • syllables in spoken words
  • creating oral rhymes
  • onsets and rimes in one syllable words
  • individual sounds in spoken words

are all what type of activities

 Phonemic Awareness

Identifying and manipulating the individual sounds in spoken words

Activities include oral rhyming games


Phonemic/Phonological Awareness

 Questions such as:


What is the first sound you hear in “map”?


What is the last sound you hear in “map”?


are both questions for what type of activity?

Developing phonological and phonemic awareness

When a child is unable to:

  1. Detect/produce rhyming words
  2. Understand/enjoy rhymes found in books
  3. Blend sounds to make a word
  4. Recognize words with the same beginning sound
  5. Identify sounds in oral language
  6. Use clapping/tapping to break words into syllables

the child is said to be having difficulty with what?

Clapping syllables of unfamiliar words

What is the best activity to develop phonological awareness?

Oral rhyming games
What is the best activity to develop phonemic awareness?
Syllables that precedes the vowel is known as what?
The vowels and all syllables that follow the onset is called what?
Ability to discriminate phonemes auditorally
The second predictor of early success in reading is the…
First predictor of early success in reading
Knowledge of upper and lowercase letters is said to be the…
Phonemic/Phonological Awareness
Which concept have letters of the alphabet HAVE NOT been introduced?
The 4th skill for developing phonological/phonemic awareness

Identifying phonemes orally such as:

Initial sound                Adding a sound

Final sound                  Deleting a sound

Blending sounds           Substituing a sound

Segmenting sounds       Isolating a sound


is known as what skill?


The 1st skill for developing phonological and phonemic awareness

Identifying word units orally

example:  man, table, cat, sister

is known as what skill?

The 2nd skill for developing phonological and phonemic awareness

Identifying syllable units orally such as:





is know as what skill?

Phonetic analysis deals with what?
Students ability to decode pattern words

A game in which students will insert a letter in front of the rime -ate to make words such as:


mate      rate      date      skate      late


will benefit with what?

Segmenting words


Breaking up a word into separate sounds such as:


UP = /u/ /p/ = 2 sounds


is known as what?

Phonological Awareness Activities

  1. Oral Rhymes
  2. Clapping syllables
  3. Word families
  4. Knowing beginning and ending sound
  5. Blending sounds into words
  6. Segmenting words into sounds

are all what type of activities?

Phoneme Deletion
Identifying the sounds that remain when a phoneme is removed is know as what?
Phoneme Manipulation

Saying a word without the initial sounds such as:

“what is map without the /m/

is known as what?


When a child can put segments together

for example: /k/ /a/ /k/ = cake

Phonological Awareness

Understanding the different ways it can be broken down such as:

  1. rhynming songs
  2. sentence segments
  3. syllable segment/blending
  4. onset/rimeblending and segmenting
  5. blendng and segmenting individual sounds

is known as what?

Phonemic Manipulation

Phonemic Isolation, blending, segmentation, deletion, and substitution are all known as what?

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