Competency 18 Mathematical Processes

Estimation
Child must be skilled in this before using a calculator
Estimation
Use this to decide if a final solution is reasonable
Manipulatives
materials that can be touched or moved are called…
Geoboards

  • Grids of pegs taht hold rubber bands in place
  • Used to introcude area and perimeter

Geoblocks

  • Hardwood 3-d geometric figures
  • Used to introduce geometric concepts and formulas such as volume and surface area

Cuisenaire Rods

  • 10 different color rods measuring 1 to 10 cm
  • Used to demonstrate addition and subtraction

Tangrams

  • Made up of 7 distinct pieces
  • Used to introduce fractions and area

Place Value
Base-ten materials,decimal squares, 10-frames, cuisenaire rods, math balance, cubes, 2-color counters are all manipulatives that teaches the concept of what?
Ratio
Pattern blocks, cuisenaire rods, Color tiles, cubes, tangrams, 2-color counters and tangrams are all manipulatives that teaches the concept of what?
Pattern Blocks

Shapes of different colors used to teach:

  • pattern or shape attributes
  • fractions and geometry

Dice
A manipulative object used to teach counting, place value, and probability
Base Ten Blocks

  • Helps students understand basic algorithm
  • cubes represent ones place
  • rods represent the tens place
  • Flats represent hundreds place
  • Blocks represent thousands place

Money
Understanding of base ten teaches this concept
Middle East
Written calendars were first used in the…
Hindu
Discovery of algebra and the number zero
Arabs
Development of the numeric system, trigonometry, and quadratic equations
Babylon and Egypt
Developed modern day math, multiplication, division, square root and cube root
Inductive Reasoning

  • A rule is made after observing or seeing several examples
  • Making a hypothese and forming a reasonable conclusion from examing a large amount of evidence

Example: observing blue jays building nests

Inductive Teaching
Learning through examples
Deductive Approach
Learning step by step is known as what approach?
Deductive Reasoning

  • Moves from assumption to conclusion
  • Moves from general to specific
  • Use of applying a rule to make a conclusion

Example: number of pounds x cost per pound

Instructional Software

Computer application similar to a textbook

Teaches math concepts or reinforce through drill exercises

Applets
Downloaded internet based applications that allow students to practice new concepts are called…
Seriation
Arranging objects in order according to size, shape, color, etc.
Centration

  • Focusing only on one aspect of a situation or problem
  • Assuming objects in a tall cylinder is more than objects in a shorter/wider container

Conservation
Thinking a nickel is worth more than a dime because the coin is larger or 5 nickels are more than a quarter

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