Competency 18 Mathematical Processes

 Estimation
 Child must be skilled in this before using a calculator
 Estimation
 Use this to decide if a final solution is reasonable
 Manipulatives
 materials that can be touched or moved are called…
 Geoboards
 Grids of pegs taht hold rubber bands in place Used to introcude area and perimeter
 Geoblocks
 Hardwood 3-d geometric figures Used to introduce geometric concepts and formulas such as volume and surface area
 Cuisenaire Rods
 10 different color rods measuring 1 to 10 cm Used to demonstrate addition and subtraction
 Tangrams
 Made up of 7 distinct pieces Used to introduce fractions and area
 Place Value
 Base-ten materials,decimal squares, 10-frames, cuisenaire rods, math balance, cubes, 2-color counters are all manipulatives that teaches the concept of what?
 Ratio
 Pattern blocks, cuisenaire rods, Color tiles, cubes, tangrams, 2-color counters and tangrams are all manipulatives that teaches the concept of what?
 Pattern Blocks
 Shapes of different colors used to teach: pattern or shape attributes fractions and geometry
 Dice
 A manipulative object used to teach counting, place value, and probability
 Base Ten Blocks
 Helps students understand basic algorithm cubes represent ones place rods represent the tens place Flats represent hundreds place Blocks represent thousands place
 Money
 Understanding of base ten teaches this concept
 Middle East
 Written calendars were first used in the…
 Hindu
 Discovery of algebra and the number zero
 Arabs
 Development of the numeric system, trigonometry, and quadratic equations
 Babylon and Egypt
 Developed modern day math, multiplication, division, square root and cube root
 Inductive Reasoning
 A rule is made after observing or seeing several examples Making a hypothese and forming a reasonable conclusion from examing a large amount of evidence Example: observing blue jays building nests
 Inductive Teaching
 Learning through examples
 Deductive Approach
 Learning step by step is known as what approach?
 Deductive Reasoning
 Moves from assumption to conclusion Moves from general to specific Use of applying a rule to make a conclusion Example: number of pounds x cost per pound
 Instructional Software
 Computer application similar to a textbook Teaches math concepts or reinforce through drill exercises
 Applets
 Downloaded internet based applications that allow students to practice new concepts are called…
 Seriation
 Arranging objects in order according to size, shape, color, etc.
 Centration
 Focusing only on one aspect of a situation or problem Assuming objects in a tall cylinder is more than objects in a shorter/wider container
 Conservation
 Thinking a nickel is worth more than a dime because the coin is larger or 5 nickels are more than a quarter