Cold War Terms

Satellite Nation
a country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation
Containment
the blocking of another nation’s attempts to spread its influence – especially the efforts of the United States to block the spread of the Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s
Cold War
the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union after WW2
Truman Doctrine
a U.S. policy of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents; Harry Truman 1947
Marshall Plan
the program under which the United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WW2
Berlin Airlift
a 327-day operation in which U.S. and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization – a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European countries, the United States, and Canada
Mao Zedong
led the Communists
Chiang Kai-shek
led the Nationalists
38th Parallel
split North and South Korea during the Korean War
Korean War
a conflict between North Korea and South Korea, lasting from 1950 to 1953, in which the United States, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans
HUAC
House Un-Americans Activities Committee – a congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following WW2
Blacklist
a list of about 500 actors, writers, producers, and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood films because of their alleged Communist connections
Rosenburgs
Ethel and Julius Rosenburg – minor activists in the American Communist Party; arrested for telling secrets to the Russians
McCarthyism
the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being Communists in the early 1950s
H-Bomb
the hydrogen bomb – a thermonuclear weapon much more powerful than the atomic bomb
Dwight Eisenhower
President from 1953-1961
Brinkmanship
the practice of threatening an enemy with massive military retaliation for any aggression
CIA
the Central Intelligence Agency – a U.S. agency created to gather secret information about foreign governments
Warsaw Pact
a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites
Krushchev
believed that communism would take over the world, but thought it could triumph peacefully; gained power
Eisenshower Doctrine
a U.S. commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country, announced by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957
U2 Incident
the downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960
G.I. Bill of Rights
a name given to the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, a 1944 law that provided financial and educational benefits for WW2 veterans
Harry Truman
President from 1945-1953
Dixiecrat
one of the southern delegates who, to protest President Truman’s civil rights policy, walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention and formed the States’ Rights Democratic Party
Fair Deal
President Harry S. Truman’s economic program – and extension of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal – which included measures to increase the minimum wage, to extend social security coverage, and to provide housing for low-income families
Franchise
a business that has bought the right to use a parent company’s name and methods, thus becoming one of a number of similar businesses in various locations
Baby Boom
the sharp increase in the U.S. birthrate following WW2
Jonas Salk
developed a vaccine for polio in 1955
Consumerism
a preoccupation with the purchasing of material goods
FCC
Federal Communications Commission – an agency that regulates U.S. communications industries, including radio and television broadcasting
Beat Movement
a social and artistic movement of the 1950s, stressing unrestrained literacy self-expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture
Beatnik
a media stereotype of the 1950s and early 1960s that displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s and violent film images
JF Kennedy
President from 1961-1963
Fidel Castro
Cuban leader who openly declared himself a communist
Berlin Wall
a concrete wall that separated East Berlin and West Berlin from 1961 to 1989, built by the Communist East German government to prevent its citizens from fleeing to the west
Test Ban Treaty
barred nuclear testing in the atmosphere; agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union
New Frontier
President JFK’s new legislative program, which included proposals to provide medical care for the elderly, to rebuild blighted urban areas, to aid education, to bolster the national defense, to increase international aid, and to expand the space program
Peace Corps
an agency established in 1961 to provide volunteer assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Alliance for Progress
a U.S. foreign aid program of the 1960s, providing economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries
Warren Commission
a group, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, that investigated the assassination of President Kennedy and concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was alone responsible for it
Lyndon B. Johnson
President from 1963-1969
Great Society
President Lyndon B. Johnson’s program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the United States
Medicare
a federal program, established in 1965, that provides hospital insurance and low-cost medical insurance to Americans aged 65 and over
Medicaid
a program, established in 1965, that provides health insurance for people on welfare
Reapportionment
the redrawing of election districts to reflect changes in population
M.L. King
led a civil rights movement; “I Have A Dream” speech
Rosa Parks
a seamstress and an NAACP officer who refused to give up her bus seat to a white person and was arrested
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference – an organization formed in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other leaders to work for civil rights through nonviolent means
SNCC
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee – an organization formed in 1960 to coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in the civil rights movement
Freedom Rider
one of the civil rights activists who rode buses throughout the South in the early 1960s to challenge segregation
1964 Civil Rights Act
a law that banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most workplaces
Voting Rights Act
1965 – a law that made it easier for African Americans to register to vote by eliminating discriminatory literacy tests and authorizing federal examiners to enroll voters denied at the local level
Malcom X
leader that declared to a Harlem audience, “If you think we are here to tell you to love the white man, you have come to the wrong place.”
Nation of Islam
a religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion

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