Cognitive Development

Schemas
Mental networks of organized information
Assimilation
Using existing schemas to make sense of new information
Accommodation
Changing an existing schemas or creating a new one to explain new information.
Preoperational Stage
Reliance of thinking processes on perception more than logic – use of symbols, imaginary play, egocentrism
Concrete Operational Stage
Use of mental operations to solve concrete problems – conservation, transformation, reversibility, classification, seriation
Formal Operational Stage
Use of mental operations to solve abstract problems – hypothetical deductive reasoning, analogical reasoning, combinatorial reasoning, probability and proportional reasoning
Lateralization
The specialization of the two brain hemispheres
Neurons
The cells that are in charge of storing and transmitting information
Synapse
The space between neurons where electric connections happen
Neuroplasticity
The ability to form new synapses in response to experience with the world
Internalization
The appropriation of the language and culture of one’s community
Mediation
When a more capable individual interprets a child’s behavior and helps transform the behavior into a representation that has the same meaning to the child and others
Zone of proximal development
The cognitive level at which children are able to solve problems with the assistance of a more capable other
Scaffolding
An instructional method in which support is given to students early on in the learning process, as they navigate their ZPD
Guided participation
Engaging in learning activities with a more capable other
Apprenticeship
A one-on-one relationship in which a less capable person is paired with a more experienced person
Self-Talk
The phenomenon of talking to ourselves outloud to complete a task
RAD Teaching

R: Reticular Activating System

A: Amygdala

D: Dopamine

Whole Brain Teaching
Teaching while encorporating several brain functions; body, imagery, visual, auditory, and emotional

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