Chpts 10-12

De Jure Segregation
Gor-given right to segregate.  It pretty much started the "white flight"  in BR and similar areas.
De Facto Segregation

It is what it is.  It is fact.  Segregation exists.  Where you live is a sort of segregation if it’s ;all white; or ;all black;

Civil Rights act 1964

Metropolitan bussing
Forced Segregation
Affirmative Action
Affirmative steps to correct past discriminatory differences
Reverse Discrimination
1978 Regions v. Backey; Just because a person is white doesn’t mean they shouldn’t get the scholarship/job/whatever.; If their qualified there is no reason not to give them what they deserve.
Goals of Education

Transmit culture

To reconstruct society

To develop human potential

Tiered learning
Differentiation-provide instruction at all levels
Develop human potential

Provide opportunities for success

Set goals and objectives for both the teacher and student

Participation and Indepenence

Be a role model


Reconstructing society

Agrarian society-Agriculture

Industrial society-immigrants

technology/information society-now

Social Problems


Child abuse

drug abuse


sexual orientation

teen pregnancy

school violence



Litigious Society
Very quick to litigate or take it to the court systems
education is viewed as…
personal property
earliest law passed for education
1642-parents are required to make sure their children could read
first attendance law


all states have compulsory attendance
clearly explained
10th ammendment
anything not covered by the constitution is controlled by the states
1st ammendment
freedom of assembly and free speech
4th ammendment
secure property against search and seizure
8th ammendment
no cruel or unusual punishment
14th ammendment
may not deny any individual equal protection by the law
due process
fair treatment through the judicial system
Becoming a teacher




-conctract renewal/tenure

Grounds for dismissal/reasons for being fired

Conduct unbecoming



Good and just cause

Fair use doctrine

Permits teachers to cope for classroom use copyrighted materials under specific conditions

public domain
available for anyone to use for any purpose.; Do not belong to any one person
The technology, education; and copyright harmony act.; The TEACH Act clarifies what uses are permissible with regard to distance education.;Furthermore, the TEACH Act outlines what requirements the information technology;staff and students of a university;must abide by in order to be in compliance with the TEACH Act.
Site License
licensing of software to a particular entity regardless of where it may physically be.

reduction in force

collective bargaining agreement
grievance-union bargains for your contract for you
Freedom of expression for teachers

Pcikering V. Board of Education 1968 Illinois

As long as your personal beliefs do not disrupt school services, you cannot be fired

Freedom of exression for students

Tinker V. Des Moines School District 1969

First court uphelp the school district, the supreme court overrulled.; As long as the students do not cause disruption or distraction they can protest.; 1st ammendment

copy right expires
after 70 years

Title IX

1972-No person in the United States shall on the basis of sex, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
Title VII
Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin
Section 504
1973 Prohibits discrimination based on disabilities
Individualized education plan
Least restricted environment
Horace Mann
1837-leader of the common school movement, was named the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, first super intendent
Lowell Mason
1838-Introduced music into public schools believed it should be taught to all
First meeting of music supervisors
The Music Supervisors National Convention
1934-Later changed to MENC; the Music Supervisors Journal renamed the music educators journal
Brown V. Topeka Board of Education
1954-Case in which the supreme court ruled that segregated schools were inherently unequal, an event that sparked the civil rights movement
Civil Rights act
1964-Federal gov’t passed the CR act that mandated, among other things, that school districts that discriminate against indiviuals on the basis of race, color, or national origin would not recieve federal funds
Soviet Union successfully launch sputnik into space

Tanglewood symposium

1967-Created the Tanglewood Declaration, an intensice evaluation of the role of music in American Society

A Nation at Risk
1983-lacked emphasis or even concern for the arts in education, started the essentialist movement

Academic Prep for College: what students need to know and be bale to do

1983-published by the college board, strongly supports the arts


1990-Individuals with Disabilities Education Act-provide funding to assist schools in developing and implements services for students with special needs
Housewright Symposium created Vision 2020
No Child left Behind
2000-aimed to improve performance of schools by increasing the accountability of states and school districts
Berliner and Bridle
Believed a nation at risk was a philosophy manufactured by the media and that schools are not as bad as their public perception
Concrete Operations
Realizing something is the same even though it looks different
John Dewey’s Philosophy of education would have stated
that the purpose of education is the personal and social growth of the individual
In the Piagetian school environment the following would occur:

Teachers encouraging children to explore and experiment

Instruction would be individualized so that children can learn in accordance with their own readiness

Children would be provided with concrete materials to touch, manipulate and used

Formal Operations
children are able to reason and think logically and abstractly, can test hypotheses, and reflect on their own thinking
John  Dewey is noted for

Advocating proressive education

Incorporating democratic practices in to the educational process

Goals of music education according to vision 2020 are

Lifelog learning in music and inclusion, or music education for every person
Branch of philosphy that asks the question “What is valued”
Goodlad’s philosophy of school improvement was based on
the ability of the teachers
Four major philosophical systems are termed
Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, and Existentialism
David Elliott
Student of Bennett Reimer; believed in doing music; listening is not enough 1995
Three ways diversity is found in the classroom

social status



Logical-mathematical intellegence
ability to discern logically mathematical and numerical patterns and to manage long chains of reasoning
linguistic intellegence

sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words and forms of language

musical intellegence
the ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, tambre and the different forms of musical expression
spatial intellegence
the ability to percieve the visiospatial world and to make transformations on the perception both mentally and in the world
bodily kinesthetic intellegence
the ability to exert great control over one’s physical movements and to handle objects skillfully
interpersonal intellegence
ability to discern and respond appropriately the temperments, moods, and motivations and desires of others
intrapersonal intellegence
perceptiveness of one’s own emotional state and the knowledge of one’s own strengths and weaknesses
naturalistic intellegence

ability to discriminate among living things and sensitivity to the features of the natural world

The Equal Access Act of 1984
If a school district has allowed other noncurriculum-related student groups to meet on school premises during noninstructional time, the district is required to permit all noncurriculum-related student clubs to meet on school premises.
The argument based on the Mozart Effect proposes that:
Spatial-temporal reasoning development should be the point and purpose of music teaching in schools.; Music makes you smarter.; Music should be used to develop other intellectual skills.
Public Law 94-142
Educational experiences for all students will occur in the least restrictive environment.
Things permissible under the copy right law

1. Emergency copying to replace purchased copies which;for any reason are not available for an imminent performance provided purchased replacement copies shall be substituted in due course.

2. A single copy of recordings of performances by students may be made for evaluation or rehearsal purposes and may be retained by the educational institution or individual.

3. For academic purposes other than performance, single or multiple copies of excerpts may be made, provided that the excerpts do not comprise a part of the whole which would constitute a performable unit such as a section, movement or aria, but in no case more than 10 percent or the whole work.; The number of copies shall not exceed one copy per pupil.

4. Printed copies that have been purchased may be edited or simplified provided that the fundamental character of the work is not distorted or the lyrics, if any, altered ir kyrics added in none exist.

Things not permissible under the copy right law

1.;Copying without unclusion of the copyright notice that appears on the printed copy.

2. Copying for the purpose of performance.

3. Copying for the purpose of substituting for the purchase of music.

4. Copying of or from works intended to be ;consumable; in the course of study or of teaching such as workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and answer cheets and like material.

The four major philosophical systems are termed
Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism

Who is least likely to approve of a student-centered curriculum?

An Essentialist

Arrangement of desks in straight rows facing the teacher; ;Great Books curriculum; Structured, standardized routine; Eurocentric View of the world; Train intellect; Conserve society; Teacher was an authority; derived from Realism/Idealism

Predominantly student talking; Needs and interest of the student are most important; Flexible, created with, and by students; purpose was to prepare for change; teacher was a facilitator; pragmatism; cooperative problem solving should be taught;Famous progressive teachers were John Dewy, Jacques Rousseau, Johann Pestalozzi
Reconstruct society; Contact with real-life situations; The teacher is viewed as a leader/facilitator; pragmatism;Empiricism
Transmit essentials to all; Basic academic subjects; Teacher was a leader; Based on Idealism/Realism; Useful skills; Cultural literacy; A Nation at Risk; Famous essentialism was E. D. Hirsch who wrote Cultural literacy: what every american needs to know;
focus on the experiences of the individual. Existentialists judge the curriculum according to whether or not it contributes to the individual’s quest for meaning; no rights or wrongs only individuals making choices and accepting the consequences
Universal Ideas; Epistemology was Inspiration Revelation, Intuition, Meditation; Absolute/Eternal Authority, Truth
Physical objects, Senses/ experiences Absolute, Absolute/nature; Truth
Physical objects; Senses/experience, Consensus; Relative/social group; Warranted, Assertability, Situation Ethics
based upon the principle that desirable human behavior can be the product of design rather than accident.
music refers to something outside itself. It may tell a story or be programatic like Berlioz’s Symphony Fantastique
Praxialism concentrates on the process (rather than the product, like formalism) and claims the best way to learn and understand music is to observe what people do and how they do it. Praxialism becomes problematic in that composers, like writers, tend to compose in isolation and there is not much one can learn from watching a composer compose. The best way, then, to observe music as process is to observe performance musicians. Although their job is to perform, it is only done so after rehearsing, usually in isolatio
Music is simply a form of expression; it shows our deepest feelings.
David Elliott
Believed the value of music is found in actually doing music. He was a strong believer in praxialism
Vision 2020
Inclusion, or music education for every person; lifelong learning in music
John Goodlasd’s Philosophy of school improvement
based on the ability of the teachers
Things found under the cultural deficit theory
The bell curve, Some races lack cognitive ability, and therefore don’t achieve as well
cultural Difference Theory
Differences are culturally based, Failure in school can result from the student’s traditions that differ from the teacher’s expectations
Socio-Structural Theory
Voluntary migration affects student achievement positively, involuntary migration-negative

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